Carbohydrates (organic molecules)

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  • Organic molecules
    • Natural elements: nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon
    • Hydrolysis: splitting of a polymer to form a monomer by adding H20.
      • Condensation: removal of water to form a  polymer from two monomer.
    • Monosaccharides: 1 molecule- glucose/fructose     Di: 2 monosaccharides- sucrose  Poly: made up of many monosaccharides-starch
      • Mono: (CH2O)n
      • Isomers: same molecular formula, structured differently.
      • When two monosaccharides join= glycosidic bond occurs.
        • Test for reducing sugar : benedicts reagent= brick red precipitate. otherwise= green
          • Non reducing sugar: boil with HCl, then neutralise with sodium hydrogen carbonate, then add benedicts reagent with heat- brick red precipitate
            • Adding  HCl= hyrdolyses it to monosaccharides. therefore  it gives reducing sugare result with benedict's reagent.
          • Reducing sugar; donates electrons, reduce other reagent. Benedict  CU(2+)SO4
          • Almost all monosaccharides are reducing sugars + some disaccharide
      • Maltose= 2 a glucose       Lactose= a glucose + galactose            Sucrose= a glucose + fructose
    • Starch= insoluble. no osmotic effect. suitable for storage. made up of amylose + amylopectin ( a glucose)
      • Amylose= coiled, straight chain. Amylopectin=branched ( held by hydrogen bonds)
      • Test: add iodine, if it goes blue/black colour=starch present. if orangey colour=no starch
  • Starch= insoluble. no osmotic effect. suitable for storage. made up of amylose + amylopectin ( a glucose)
    • Amylose= coiled, straight chain. Amylopectin=branched ( held by hydrogen bonds)
    • Test: add iodine, if it goes blue/black colour=starch present. if orangey colour=no starch

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