Organic Chemstry

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  • Organic Chemstry- Part 1
    • Alkanes
      • First Five alkanes
        • 1. Methane (CH4)
        • 2. Ethane (C2H6)
        • 3. Propane (C3H8)
        • 4. Butane (C4H10)
        • 5.pentane (C5H12)
      • Key words: Alkanes- family of compounds with the same general formula and each adjacent member differs by a unit of CH2.
        • Homologous Series:- A family of compounds with similar propertics and bonding and which follow a general formula
          • Hydrocarbons:- A compound consisting only of hydrogen and carbon.
      • General Formula: Is the same for Homologous series which is CnH2n + 2
      • Saturated
        • Only have single bonds
      • Complete Combustion
        • Reacting in excess oxygen
          • Alkane+ oxygen-- Carbon dioxide + water
      • Incomplete Combustion
        • Limited supply of oxygen
          • alkane+oxygen-- carbon momoxide + water + carbon (soot)
            • Posinous
            • Reduces the bloods ability to carry oxygen
    • Alkenes
      • Top 3 Ones
        • 1. Ethene (C2H4)
        • 2. Propene (C3H6)
        • 3. Butene (C4H8)
      • General Formula:- CnH2n
      • Addition Reaction
        • Eg. Alkene and bromine water (bromine water goes from orange to colorless as it reacts)
    • Fractional Distillation
      • Fractionating Column
        • Refinery Gases- Used for Bottled Gas
          • Gasoline- Used for fueling cars
            • Naphtha- Used for making chemicals
              • Kerosine- Used for aircraft refueling
                • Diesel Oil- Used for fueling trucks
                  • Fuel Oil- used for fueling power stations
                    • Residue- Used for Bitumen for road surfacing
    • Cracking
      • Cracking is a useful process in which it breaks down large molecules into smaller much more useful molecules
    • Key Terms
      • Homologous Series:
        • The have same general formula
        • Each adjacent member differs by a unit of CH2.
        • They have the same functional group
        • Similar Chemical propertics
        • Graduation in physical propertics
          • As molecules gets bigger, melting and boiling pt increases. They become more viscous
        • Homologous Series:- A family of compounds with similar propertics and bonding and which follow a general formula
          • Hydrocarbons:- A compound consisting only of hydrogen and carbon.
      • Unsaturated
        • Has a double bond. eg Alkenes
    • General formula
      • Tells us how to work out the molecular formula based on the number of carbons
    • Polymers
      • When alkenes are heated up about 200 degrees C and put under a high pressure of 2000atm, it reacts with its self
    • Substitution Reaction
      • Alkanes can also react with bromine water if exposed to UV light, so the bromine water goes from orange to colorless

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