Organic Chemistry 

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  • Created by: leenaq
  • Created on: 05-03-14 18:08
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  • Organic Chemistry
    • Groups
      • Alkanes
        • CnH2n+2
          • the simplest homologous group
            • when you burn alkanes with oxgyen you'll get carbon dioxide
              • combustion reaction
        • Alkyl
          • alkane molecule that has lost a hydrogen atom to attach to another carbon chain
      • Alkenes
        • CnH2n
          • containing a double carbon-carbon bond
      • Alcohols
        • CnH2n+1OH
          • homologous series of orgainc molecules with an -OH functional group
      • Carboxylic acid
        • CnH2n+1COOH
          • homologous series of organic molecules with COOH functional group
      • Aldehydes
        • CnH2n+2CHO
      • ketones
        • CnH2nO
      • Halogenoalxanes
        • CnH2n+1X
      • Alkynes
        • CnH2n-2
          • containing at least one triple carbon-carbon bond
    • Structural Isomerism
      • caused by different arrangements of the carbon skeleton
        • they have similar chemical properties but different physical properties
      • structural isomers have different arrangments of the same atoms
      • chain isomers have different arrangements of the carbon skeleton
      • Alkanes
        • halogens react with alkanes to form halogenalkanes
          • the reaction mechanism
            • 1) initiation reaction
              • free radicals are produced
                • sunlight provides energy to break Cl-Cl bond (photodissociation)
                  • the bond splits equally (homolytic fission)
                    • the atom becomes a highly reactive free radical because of the unpaired electron
            • 2) propagation reactions
              • free radicals are used up and created in a chain reaction
                • Cl. attacks a methane molecule
                  • the new methyl free radical attacks another Cl2 molecule
                    • the Cl. molecule does the same until all the Cl2 and CH4 molecules are wiped out
            • 3) termination reactions
              • free radicals are mopped up
                • when two free radicals join together they make a stable molecule


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