Alkenes and alkanes

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  • Organic Chemistry
    • Alkanes
      • Organic formula: CnH2n+2
        • incomplete combustion - carbon monoxide, carbon (soot) + water
        • complete combustion -carbon dioxide +water
      • have isomers (an atom with the same molecular formula but a different structural formulae
        • e.g. methylpropane is an isomer for butane
      • Substitution reaction: when one atom is swapped with another
    • Alkenes
      • General formula: CnH2n
      • unsaturated hydrocarbons
        • contain at least one double c=c bond
          • Therefore more reactive than alkanes
        • undergo addition reactions
          • e.g.  bromine water
            • Alkenes decolourise bromine water
    • Alcohols
      • Hydration of ethene
        • Temp 300
        • Catalyst: phosphoric acid
        • Pressure: 600-700atm
  • Alkanes are saturated
    • only single c=c bonds
      • makes them relatively unreactive
    • Alkanes
      • Organic formula: CnH2n+2
        • incomplete combustion - carbon monoxide, carbon (soot) + water
        • complete combustion -carbon dioxide +water
      • have isomers (an atom with the same molecular formula but a different structural formulae
        • e.g. methylpropane is an isomer for butane
      • Substitution reaction: when one atom is swapped with another
  • manufacture of ethanol
    • Hydration of ethene
      • Temp 300
      • Catalyst: phosphoric acid
      • Pressure: 600-700atm
  • Disadvantages
    • very slow
      • batch process
    • Fermentation
      • Temp: 30
      • Catalyst: Yeast
      • converts sugars (e.g. glucose) into ethanol
      • manufacture of ethanol
        • Advantages
          • Renewable
          • low temps
        • Anaerobic
    • produces dilute ethanol
      • needs further processing
      • Disadvantages
        • very slow
          • batch process
        • Fermentation
          • Temp: 30
          • Catalyst: Yeast
          • converts sugars (e.g. glucose) into ethanol
          • Advantages
            • Renewable
            • low temps
          • Anaerobic
    • Advantages
      • fast
        • continuous process
      • produces pure ethanol
    • Disadvantages
      • expensive
        • high temps + pressures required
        • uses non-renewable resources

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