organic chem

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  • Created by: reannew
  • Created on: 10-03-16 17:44
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  • Organic Chem
    • Homologous Series
      • 'family of compounds'
      • each series has the same formula and functional group
      • each member increases by CH2 going down the group
      • BP increases down group ~ more IM forces (WdW)
      • size of molecules increase down group
      • Families!!
        • alkANes Ch4, Methane
          • C-C and C-H single bonds only
          • suffix -ANE
        • alkENes CH2=CH2, methene
          • C=C double bond
          • suffix - ENE
        • Halogenoalkanes CH3Cl, chloromethane
          • halogen bonded to C
          • prefix and suffix depend on halogen
        • alcohols CH3OH, Methanol
          • OH attached to a hydrocarbon
          • suffix -OL prefix HYDROXY-
        • Aldehydes CH3CH=O, Ethanal
          • C=O at end of chain, H on same C
          • suffix -AL
        • Ketones CH3C=OCH3, Propanone
          • C=O in middle of chain
          • suffix -ONE
        • Carboxylic acid CH3CH2C=OOH, propanoic acid
          • C=O and OH group at end of chain
    • Alkene Nomenclature
      • IUPAC rules
        • 1. find and name the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the functional group
          • 2. identify and name groups attached to this chain
            • 3. number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest the substituent group
              • 4. designate the location of each substituent group by an appropriate number and name
                • 5. assemble the name, listing the groups in alphabetical order.
                  • IUPAC rules
                    • 1. find and name the longest continuous carbon chain that contains the functional group
                      • 2. identify and name groups attached to this chain
                        • 3. number the chain consecutively, starting at the end nearest the substituent group
                          • 4. designate the location of each substituent group by an appropriate number and name
                            • 5. assemble the name, listing the groups in alphabetical order.
      • isomerism
        • structural isomers
          • position isomers
            • same carbon chain, different bond position
            • same molecular formula and functionalgroup
          • chain isomers
            • same molecular formula
            • different arrangement of carbon skeleton
          • functional group isomers
            • same molecular formula and functional group
            • change between "pairs of molecules"
              • aldehydes and ketones
              • cycloalkane and alkanes
              • alcohol and ether
              • carboxylic acid and ester
        • E - Z isomers
          • possible in alkene structures because there is no rotation about the double bond
          • alkenes can only have a pair of E-Z isomers if  both carbons of the C=C have 2 different groups bonded to them
            • Z groups- primary groups on same side
            • E groups- primary groups on opposite sides
      • Alkanes and petroleum
        • petroleum = crude oil
        • alkenes - saturated hydrocarbons
        • fractional distillation
          • crude oil isnt useful in its raw form, so we use FD to separate it into useful fractions
          • how it works
            • 1. crude oil is vaporised
              • 2. the oil starts at the bottom of the fractioning column and rises through the trays
                • 3. the largest hydrocarbonsdont vaporise at all, and they run to the bottom
                  • 4. as crude oil vapour goes up the fractioning column, it gets cooler, creating a temperature gradient.
                    • 5. the BP increases as the hydrocarbons get longer, allowing each fraction to condense at a different temperature
                      • 6. the smallest hydrocarbons with the lowest BPs don't condense at all, theyre drawn out as gasses from the top.
                        • how it works
                          • 1. crude oil is vaporised
                            • 2. the oil starts at the bottom of the fractioning column and rises through the trays
                              • 3. the largest hydrocarbonsdont vaporise at all, and they run to the bottom
                                • 4. as crude oil vapour goes up the fractioning column, it gets cooler, creating a temperature gradient.
                                  • 5. the BP increases as the hydrocarbons get longer, allowing each fraction to condense at a different temperature
                                    • 6. the smallest hydrocarbons with the lowest BPs don't condense at all, theyre drawn out as gasses from the top.
            • uses
              • 1-4 carbon chain: gasses, liquefied petroleum, camping gas
              • 5-12 chain: petrol
              • 15-19 chain: gas oil, diesel fuel
              • 50+ chain: bitumen, roofing, road surfacing

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