Organelles: Structure and Purpose

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  • Organelles
    • The Nucleus
      • The largest organelle, when stained it shows darkened patches known as chromatin
      • Surrounded by a nuclear envelope, it is made up of two fluid filled membranes
      • Houses most of genetic material. Nucleolus makes RNA and ribosomes.
    • Endoplasmic Reticulum
      • Consists of flattened membrane filled sacs.
      • RER transports proteins made in the ribosomes attached.
      • SER is involved in making the lipids cells need
    • Golgi Apparatus
      • Membrane bound, flattened sacs
      • Recieves proteins from ER and modifies them.
    • Mitochondria
      • Spherical shaped with two membranes. Inner membrane form cristae, central part forms matrix
        • Site where ATP is produced.
    • Chloroplasts
      • Found in plant cells. Have two membranes. Inner membrane is continuous network of flattened sacs called thylakoids
        • Site of photosynthesis.
    • Lysosomes
      • Spherical sacs surrounded by single membrane
        • Powerful digestive enzymes that brake down materials


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