Organelles- part 1

  • Created by: Freja
  • Created on: 12-04-21 16:22
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  • Organelles
    • Plasma (cell surface) Membrane
      • The membrane found on the surface of animal cells and just inside the cell wall of plant cells and prokaryotes. Its mainly made op lipids and proteins.
      • Regulates the movement of substances into and out of the cell.
      • It has receptor molecules on it, which allow it to respond to chemicals like hormones.
    • Cell Wall
      • A rigid structure that surrounds plant cells. Its mainly made of the carbohydrate cellulose.
      • Support plant cells.
    • Nucleus
      • A large organelle surrounded by a nuclear envelope (double membrane), which contains many pores. The nucleus contains chromatin (which is made from DNA and proteins) and a structure called the nucleolus.
      • The nucleus controls the cell's activities (by controlling the transcription of DNA).
      • DNA contins instructions to make proteins.
      • The pores allow substances to move between the nucleus and cytoplasm.
      • The nucleolus make ribsomes.
    • Lysosome
      • A round organelle surrounded by a membrane, with no clear internal structure.
      • Contains digestive enzymes. These are kept separate from the cytoplasm by the surrounding membrane, and can be used to digest invading cells or to break down worn out components of the cell.
    • Ribosome
      • A very small organelle that either floats free in the cytoplasm or is attached to the RER. It's made up of proteins and RNA. It's not surrounded by a membrane.
      • The site where proteins are made.
    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
      • A system of membranes enclosing a fluid-filled space. The surface is covered with ribosomes.
      • Folds and processes proteins that have been made at the ribosomes.
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
      • Similar to RER, but with no ribosomes.
      • Synthesises and processes lipids.
    • Vesicle
      • A small fluid-filled sac in the cytoplasm, surrounded by a membrane.
      • Transports substances in and out of the cell (via the plasma membrane) and between organelles.
      • Some are formed by the Golgi apparatus or the ER, while others are formed at the cell surface.


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