Protein synthesis, prokaryotes and eukaryotes

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  • Created by: Steff06
  • Created on: 30-03-16 16:56
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  • Organelles at work
    • Protein synthesis
      • 1. Instructions to make the hormone are in the DNA in the nucleus.
      • 3. Nucleus copies the instructions in DNA into mRNA.
      • 5. Ribosome reads instructions and uses codes to assemble hormone.
      • 7. Golgi apparatus PACKAGES and MODIFIES protein so it is ready for release. Packaged into a VESICLE and moved to cell surface MEMBRANE where it is secreted outside.
      • 2. Specific instruction to make that hormone is known as the GENE which is on a chromosome.
      • 4. mRNA leaves nucleus through nuclear PORE and attaches to a ribosome.
      • 6. Assembled protein in rough ER is pinched off in a VESICLE and transported to GOLGI apparatus.
    • Differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes:
      • Prokaryotic cells are much smaller and do NOT have any internal membranes,  nucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum or lysosomes. Prokaryotic ribosomes are smaller.
    • Similarities between prokaryotes and eukaaryotes
      • Both prokaryotes and eukaryotes have a cell surface membrane made of phospholipids, instructions in the form of DNA, ribosomes, cytoplasm and both can perform all the characteristics of living things.
    • Prokaryotes that help: Bacterial species used in FOOD INDUSTRY to make cheese and yoghurt. Skin covered in normal flora of bacteria which prevent harmful microorganisms entering the body.
      • Bacterial cells in mammals help with vitamin K production and to digest some foods.
        • Sewage treatment and natural recycling rely on bacterial cells digesting and respiring dead and waste material.


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