A level cell structure

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  • cell structure
    • Eukaryotes
      • Membrane bound organelle
      • Contains a Nucleus
        • Consists of a nuclear envelope
          • this is the doubles membrane structure that surrounds the nucleus. Forms a countinous structure with the rough ER. The pores allow the passage of large molecules, e.g mRNA and ribosomes
        • consists of a  Chromatin
          • made up of coils of DNA bound to protein. During cell division chromatin condenses into chromosomes
        • Consists of nucleolus
          • The location  where ribosomes and nucleotides are manufactured
        • Contains the genetic information of a cell
      • Plant cells
        • Chlorplasts
          • the endosymbiotic theory
            • Describes the origin of chloroplasts and mitochondria
            • M and C both had 70s ribosomes and circular DNA.
            • Suggested that at least 1.5 x 10^9 years ago some ancient bacteria with very fluid membranes engulfed others and maintained a symbiotic relationship with them.
              • Some of those engulfed were very good at turning  glusoce and oxygen into ATP - M
              • Some of those engulfed could turn carbon dioxide and water into glucose - C
            • 1883
        • Cell wall
          • to provide structure to a plant cell.
          • cell wall made of cellulose or fungi - chitin
        • Vacuole
          • Consists of a large permanent vacuole, consists of a fluid filled sac bounded by a single membrane, the tonoplast
          • contain cell sap, a solution which stores chemicals such as glucose, amino acids and minerals
        • Plasmodesmata
        • Starch grain used for energy storage
      • Animal cells
        • Mitochondria
          • Produce ATP in aerobic respiration
        • Ribosomes
          • important in protein synthesis, as they are the site of translation, where mRNA is used to assemble the polypeptide chain.
        • Golgi body
          • to modify and package proteins into secretory vesicles
        • Vesicles
        • Lysosome
          • Contain and isolate potentially harmful  enzymes from the remainder of the cell
        • Glycogen granules used for energy storage
        • Rough ER
          • Transports the proteins made in the ribsomes.
        • Smooth ER
          • Lipid synthesis and storage
      • 80s ribosomes
    • prokaryotes
      • Single celled organism, DNA is free in the cytoplasm
      • Bacteria
        • DNA loose within the cytoplasm
        • mesosomes
          • Where respiration is thought to occur
      • 70s ribosomes
      • Viruses
        • only be seen by a light microscope
        • acellular - not made of cells
        • they are made up of nucleic acid, either DNA or RNA, surrounded by a protein coat, the capsid.

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