- opposition to Lister's ideas
- Microbes could not be seen without a microscope so some doctors did not accept that microbes caused infection.
- Lister himself kept changing his methods in an attempt to further improve his work - many doctors thought this meant he was not sure of his ideas,
- The equipment was expensive and heavy.
- The nurses resented the extra work caused by this emphasis on hygiene.
- Using carbolic solutions slowed down the whole operation, which could lead to problems of blood loss.
- Surgeons and patients alike disliked carbolic acid as it it burnt their skin and the spray irritated the patient's lungs.