Opposition to the Nazi Regime in WW2

Mind Map looking at the different groups of Opposition in Germany during WW2

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  • Opposition to the Nazi Regime 1939-45
    • Army
      • Military generally supportive especially at the beginning of the war when victories made Hitler look like a military genius
      • Reluctant to oppose Hitler because of their oath to him
      • Assassination attempt failed in when a bomb was placed on an aircraft
      • By 1943 war had changed military opinion of Hitler - Loss of Stalingrad and horrors of the east persuaded some to oppose Hitler
      • July 1944 Bomb Plot
        • Stauffenberg was a leading conspirator and had a timed bomb device plot to Kill Hitler
          • Planned to place Beck as President and Goerdler as Chancellor andseek peace with the Allies
        • D-Day put urgency into the plans - wanted to show Allies not all Germans had been tainted by Nazism
        • Bomb exploded but was too far from Hitler who was protected by a large oak table
          • Goebbels announced Hitler's survival paralysing the plot
            • Hundereds executed for being related to the plot
            • Army was emasculated as a result and the Hitler salute became compulsary
            • Himmler became commander in chief of the army
    • Conservatives
      • Goerdler Circle
        • Goerdler, Beck et al. opposed antisemitism and wanted diplomatic links with the Allies
        • Morality based opposition
        • Wanted an aristocratic Germany after the War because people couldn't be trusted as they voted the Nazi's
        • Involved in the Bomb Plot - Goerdler was executed as a result
      • Kriesau Circle
        • Included Moltke, intellects and traditionalists
        • Moltke wanted a European Union after the War to keep peace
        • Believed in restoration of rights and democracy
        • Kriesau discovered and leaders executed
    • Youth
      • Edelweiss group an alternative to Hitler Youth and beat up members of the Youth
      • White Rose Group - led by Hans + Sophie Scholl
        • Student movement in Munich - led anti Nazi Protests in 1942 - Executed in February '43
      • Youth Disaffected with absence or loss of Fathers - caused drinking/ smoking/ promiscuity
    • Church
      • Crucifix Crisis in Bavaria
        • Gaulieter of Bavaria banned Crucifixes in School - This faced serious petition from parents
          • This was more a defense of the Church's independence rather than against the regime
      • Bishop Van Galen
        • Supported destruction of Bolshevism but spoke out against T4 program and closure of monasteries
          • Hitler called the T4 Program off
        • Opposition based partly on morality but mainly to retain culture - not against Nazism
    • Left Wing
      • SPD and KPD forced underground and only produced leaflets calling for action rather than causing opposition
      • Bavaria had 89 factory cells of resistance in 1941 alone
      • Gestapo infiltrated most left wing opposition
      • Problem of the left had been dealt with mainly before the war


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