Opposition to Tsarism

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  • Opposition to Tsarism
    • Peasant life
      • background
        • Peasants= 80% of population.
        • Lived a life of hard work, large debt, high taxes and they did not own land.
      • Nicholas II Counter-reforms
        • Land Captains replaced zemstvos (local committees) as key figure in local government.
          • Land Captains managed the work of peasants+administered law.
        • Peasants lost the right to elect people to their zemstvos.
          • Land Captains made final decision on candidates for zemstvos.
    • Working class
      • background
        • Urban workers=4% of population in 1894.
          • Emerged due to Witte's industrial policies.
        • Received better pay than peasants but factories were very dangerous.
          • Working conditions were tough: 12 hour day.
          • Managers could beat their employees.
        • Lived in slums in the cities
          • Mortality rate of workers=higher than peasants
      • Consequences of harsh conditions and inequality.
        • Led to strikes and growth of socialist groups.
    • League of Liberation
      • Background
        • 1903: middle class oponents of Tsarism formed the league.
          • Led by Milyukov and Struve.
      • Demands: programme (1904)
        • An end to autocracy.
        • Democratic government based on universal suffrage.
        • Maximum 8 hour day for workers.
        • Redistribution of land to peasants.
        • Self-determination for all nations in Russian Empire.
      • Composition
        • Urban middle class and election members of zemstvos.
      • Conflict with government
        • Government believed the league was dangerous
          • Okhrana arrested leading members after first Congress.

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