Opposition to the Tsarist regime (6)

  • Created by: MonsurAli
  • Created on: 01-06-17 16:34
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  • Opposition to the Tsarist regime
    • Pre-1870: emergence of new ideas and opposition
      • Westernisers: wanted to catch up with the west (Turgenev). Slavophiles: wanted to preserve and modernise Russian culture (Tolstoy)
      • Chernyshevsky wrote 'What is to be done?' which spread the view that peasants should lead revolution.
        • Herzen had similar views and was the editor of 'The Bell'.
      • Bakunin (an anarchist and socialist) wanted collective ownership of land and income based on hours worked.
        • Bakunin wrote 'Catechism of a revolutionary' and Nechaev smuggled it into Russia. Spread the view that only a bloody revolution will overthrow the autocracy.
        • He also translated Marx's Communist Manifesto; first copy of Das Kapital published in Russia in 1872.
          • Marx believed society needs a final struggle between the proletariat and bourgeoisie to lead to a perfect society.
      • Tchaikovsky Circle: set up in 1868-69. Literary society who organised printing, publishing etc. They published Das Kapital. Small circle (100 people), but it wanted revolution.
    • Opposition between 1870-81
      • 1874: Peter Lavrov encouraged 2000 young people (mainly students) to 'go to the people'. They were Narodniks (Populists) acted like peasants to be accepted so they could spread their views.
        • However fears that they were secret police and due to their loyalty to the Tsar led to the peasants handing them over to the police. 1600 arrests made.
      • 1876: Second Narodnik movement, but failed with many arrests.
      • 1877: Narodniks established 'Land and Liberty' which started assassinations. They killed the head of the Third Section in 1878 (Mezemstev), and made several attempts on the Tsar's life.
        • 1879: L&L split into
          • Black Partition: Led by Plekhanov. Aimed to allocate 'black soil' (land) to peasants. Worked peacefully. However weakened by arrests in 1880-1881 and broke up. Plekhanov became a Marxist after.
          • People's Will: Led by Milkhailov and larger than BP. Violent and did assassination attempts (on the Tsar too). March 1881 - Alex II assassinated by a bomb as he was travelling by coach to his Winter Palace.
    • Opposition and reaction after 1881
      • Security stepped up which ended the Populists; even though some met in secret and committed acts of terrorism.
      • 'Self education' circles which translated foreign socialist literature continued underground. Contacts with those in the west and in exile were maintained.
      • From Switzerland, Plekhanov created the 'Emancipation of Labour' group in 1883. They smuggled in Marxist tracts and demonstrated it was applicable to Russia.
        • They faced a setback at the time with a German contact being arrested, and they had limited impact.
        • Plekhanov's 'two-stage revolutionary strategy' was key in the advancement of Marxism in Russia

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