Opposition to the Tsar - SR's and RSDLP

  • Created by: Tori
  • Created on: 13-02-20 11:21
View mindmap
  • Oppostion to the Tsar - SR's and Social Democrats
    • The Social Democrats
      • The Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) was established in 1898.
      • Marxism
        • Movement emerged in the late 19th century.
        • Inspired by Karl Marx.
        • Believes that industrialisation and capitalism led to the exploitation of the proletariat (workers).
        • Advocated for a proletariat revolution against capitalism to create a free and equal society.
      • Divisions
        • Disagreed funadmentally on the strategy of the RSDLP.
          • Lenin and the Bolsheviks argued the proletariat in Russia was too weak and uneducated to create a revoltuion.
            • Hence, argued that the RSDLP should become a vanguard party.
              • A small secretive party of professional revolutionaries who would lead a revolution on behalf of the workers.
          • Martov and the Mensheviks argued that the RSDLP should be a mass party.
            • They should edcuate and organise the proletariat.
    • The Socialist Revolutionaries (SR's)
      • Founded in 1902.
      • Stressed the needs of Russia's peasants.
        • Main aim was land reform
        • Also believed that peasant communes (or mirs) could become the basis of a new socialist society.
      • Viktor Chernov, leading SR figure, was influenced by Marxism.
        • Argued that together the proletariat and the peasants should over throw the Tsar.
      • Political violence
        • Influenced by anarchism and nihilism, they stressed the importance of revolutionary violence.
          • Radical SR's were responsible for the assasiantion of some government ministers:
            • Nikolay Bogolepov (1901) - Tsar's education minister.
            • Vyacheslav von Plehve (1904) - minister of the Interior.
    • Reasons for the Failure of Opposition Groups
      • The groups faced many obsticles, hence the SR's and RSDLP remained small.
        • No more than 100,000 members between them by 1905.
      • Divisions
        • Liberals wanted reforms to guarantee political rights.
          • However, socialists wanted a full-scale revolution to change the economic and social structure of Russia.
        • The RSDLP was divided between Bolsheviks and Mensheviks.
        • Sr's divided on the issue of violence.
      • Repression
        • The government is extreemly successful at oppressing opposition groups through:
          • Okhrana exiled radical leaders.
            • Lenin was exiled to Siberia.
          • Pavel Milyukov and Pyotr Struve were both banned from attending the 1st Congress of the League for Liberation (seen as too influential as they were the organisation's leaders).
      • Strike breaking
        • Police and army used extreme violence to end strikes.
          • Used on almost 800 occasions between 1900-02.
      • The ukase
        • A decree (or ukase) was issued by the Tsar in 1904 to try diffuse the political opposition.
          • Stated that the government would respect individual rights.
            • The decree divided the liberals.
              • Some believed this was the first step to serious reform.
              • Some recognised this would never be implemented.
      • The Okhrana
        • Kept revolutionary parties under surveillance.
          • Okhrana 'agents provocaterus' infiltrated radical parties, then stirred up trouble and divisions within them.
      • Illiteracy
        • The SR's and RSDLP's both relied on newspapers to spread their message.
          • However, the vast majority of Russian peasants could not read.
            • Hence, it was difficult for radicals to influence groups such as the peasants.
  • Aswell as Russian Liberals, the Tsar faced Socialist opponents.


No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Russia - 19th and 20th century resources »