Opposition (nature of government)

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  • Opposition (Nature of Government)
    • Before 1917
      • Emergence of opposition groups
        • People's Will (1879)
          • Primary aim to assassinate the Tsar - achieved in 1881
        • The Populists
          • Aimed to engage the rural classes in a political debate to overthrow the Tsar
        • SD's (1898)
          • Influenced by Marxism and the need to encourage working class consciousness, improving pay and hours
            • Divided into Bolsheviks and Mensheviks
        • SR's (1901)
          • Focussed on improving living conditions
            • Left SR's: responsible for 2000 political killings 1901-1905
            • Right SR's: worked with parties and groups to gain support
        • Kadets (1905)
          • The Constitutional Democrats - intellectual arm of the Liberal movement
        • Octobrists (1905)
          • Moderate Liberal Group who wanted changes to Government
            • Both supported Nicholas II October Manifesto
              • The Constitutional Democrats - intellectual arm of the Liberal movement
      • Effectiveness of Opposition
        • Radical opponents of the Tsar wanted an end to the Romanov dyansty
          • Peoples Will successful partly - Assassinated Alexander II but didn't end Tsardom
          • Bolsheviks were Successful - Assassinated Nicholas II and his family and ended the dynasty
        • Peasant Riots wanted greater freedoms, rights to the Land and protection against Famines
          • Zemstva and Stolypin's Reforms seemed favourable however still had to pay redemption taxes and were controlled by Mir and Land Captains
          • Lenin tried to gain their support through his 'Peace, Bread and Land' campaign
        • Worker's Protests achieved little and strikes were repressed with force
          • Lena Goldfields strikes: 200 workers were killed by the army
        • Some national minorities were effective in getting autonomy
          • Finland gained full autonomy in 1905 - however was reneged on by Stolypin
    • After 1917
      • Lenin
        • The Bolshevik party was the strongest party is existance
        • Moderate opponents to the Civil war and War communism emerged within the Bolshevks - Lenin introduced the NEP to appease them
        • Created a one-party state through the Ban on Factions 1921 (ban all opposing parties and groups)
          • Despite this, in-fighting continued which came a head after Lenins Death  in the form of a power struggle
      • Stalin
        • Opposition was largely unsuccessful due to his ruthless repression: show trials, purges and the Great terror
        • United opposition (Trotsky, Kamenev and Zinioviev) was successfully dealt with
      • Khrushchev
        • De-Stalinsation allowed greater tolerance for opposition
          • 1959: 11,000 counter-revolutionaries in Gulags compared to 5.5 mi in 1953
      • National Minorities
        • Poland and Finland gained full independence after Treaty of Brest-Litvosk
        • Georgia gained temporary independence in 1920
        • Ukraine made important gains under 1936 constitution


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