Operant Conditioning

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  • Created by: ak98
  • Created on: 31-03-16 23:18
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  • Reinforcement
    • A consequence that strengthens the behaviour that preceded it.
      • Positive Reinforcement
        • Increases the likelihood of a response by providing pleasant consequnces
          • Reward Sytem
      • Negative Reinforcement
        • Increases the likelihood of a response that removes or provides escape from unpleasant consequences
          • Avoidance Learning
      • Secondary Reinforcement
        • By itself it isn't reinforcing
        • Associated with naturally occurring primary reinforcers (food, water). For example, money, parents.
      • For it to work :
        • Organism must want the reifnorcer
          • Can be a problem if an animal gets full and no longer wants food.
        • Reinforcement must be immediate as organism must know what is being reinforced
  • Behaviour Shaping
    • Reinforcing responses that increasingly resemble a desired end behaviour in a step by step manner, to build up very complex behaviour from simple units.
      • First responses are reinforced until perfected
        • Reinforcement is withheld until the behaviour is refined to the next desired behaviour
  • Basic Theory
    • Operant Conditioning
      • Reinforcement
        • A consequence that strengthens the behaviour that preceded it.
          • Positive Reinforcement
            • Increases the likelihood of a response by providing pleasant consequnces
              • Reward Sytem
          • Negative Reinforcement
            • Increases the likelihood of a response that removes or provides escape from unpleasant consequences
              • Avoidance Learning
          • Secondary Reinforcement
            • By itself it isn't reinforcing
            • Associated with naturally occurring primary reinforcers (food, water). For example, money, parents.
          • For it to work :
            • Organism must want the reifnorcer
              • Can be a problem if an animal gets full and no longer wants food.
            • Reinforcement must be immediate as organism must know what is being reinforced
      • Punishment
        • Decreases the likelihood of a response being repeated if it is followed by as inescapable negative/unpleasant consequence
          • Aversive Stimuli
      • Behaviour Shaping
        • Reinforcing responses that increasingly resemble a desired end behaviour in a step by step manner, to build up very complex behaviour from simple units.
          • First responses are reinforced until perfected
            • Reinforcement is withheld until the behaviour is refined to the next desired behaviour
      • Schedules of Reinforcement
        • Continuous Schedules - Reinforcing every response made
          • As every response is rewarded, the novelty of the reward may wear off.
        • Partial Schedules - Reinforcing responses in varying frequencies to affect response and extinction rates
          • Variable Ratio Schedule
            • Reinforcing an average number of responses.
              • food pellet on average every 10 lever presses, sometimes after 8, sometimes after 12 presses
          • Fixed Ratio Schedule
            • Reinforcing a fixed number of responses.
              • food pellet for every 10 lever presses in a Skinner box
          • Variable Interval Schedule
            • Reinforcing after an average amount of time.
              • food pellet on average each minute, sometimes after 50 seconds, sometimes after 70 seconds.
          • Fixed Interval Schedule
            • Reinforcing after a fixed amount of time.
              • food pellet for a lever press each minute in a Skinner box
    • Learning through the consequences of behavioural responses
    • Thorndike's Law of Effect.
      • Any response that  led to desirable consequences was more likely to occur again
      • Any response that led to undesirable consequences was less likely to occur again

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