Crude Oil and Fuels

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  • Created by: Jfreer1
  • Created on: 26-03-15 15:39
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  • Crude Oils and Fuels
    • Fractional Distillation
      • Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions.
      • A tall fractionating column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights.
      • The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the top. Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and substances with lower boiling points condense on the way to the top.
    • Other Fossil Fuels
      • Crude oil is not the only fossil fuel.
        • Natural gas mainly consists of methane. It is used in domestic boilers, cookers and Bunsen burners, as well as in some power stations.
        • Coal was formed from the remains of ancient forests. It can be burned in power stations. Coal is mainly carbon but it may also contain sulfur compounds, which produce sulfur dioxide when the coal is burned. This gas is a cause of acid rain.
    • Cracking
      • Cracking allows large hydrocarbon molecules to be broken down into smaller, more useful hydrocarbon molecules. Fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules are heated to vaporise them. They are then either:
        • heated to 600-700°C
        • passed over a catalyst of silica or alumina
      • These processes break covalent bonds in the molecules, causing thermal decomposition reactions. Cracking produces smaller alkanes and alkenes (hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon double bonds).
  • Complete combustion
    • Combustion
      • Crude Oils and Fuels
        • Fractional Distillation
          • Fractional distillation separates a mixture into a number of different parts, called fractions.
          • A tall fractionating column is fitted above the mixture, with several condensers coming off at different heights.
          • The column is hot at the bottom and cool at the top. Substances with high boiling points condense at the bottom and substances with lower boiling points condense on the way to the top.
        • Other Fossil Fuels
          • Crude oil is not the only fossil fuel.
            • Natural gas mainly consists of methane. It is used in domestic boilers, cookers and Bunsen burners, as well as in some power stations.
            • Coal was formed from the remains of ancient forests. It can be burned in power stations. Coal is mainly carbon but it may also contain sulfur compounds, which produce sulfur dioxide when the coal is burned. This gas is a cause of acid rain.
        • Cracking
          • Cracking allows large hydrocarbon molecules to be broken down into smaller, more useful hydrocarbon molecules. Fractions containing large hydrocarbon molecules are heated to vaporise them. They are then either:
            • heated to 600-700°C
            • passed over a catalyst of silica or alumina
          • These processes break covalent bonds in the molecules, causing thermal decomposition reactions. Cracking produces smaller alkanes and alkenes (hydrocarbons that contain carbon-carbon double bonds).
      • Incomplete Combustion
        • Produces Carbon Monoxide
    • Produces Carbon Dioxide

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