Fats and oils

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  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 12-05-13 16:36
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  • Oils and Fats
    • Oils
      • Liquid at room temperature because of high levels of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats.
        • Monounsaturated- when a  long chain molecule contains only one double bond
        • Unsaturated-when a long carbon chain molecule contains double bonds
        • Polyunsaturated- have two or more double carbon-carbon bonds
          • Removing some of the double bonds will raise the melting point and harden the oil. This increases it's shelf life.
            • Can break the double bonds by adding hydrogen. The more hydrogen added, the greater viscosity. This process is used in production of margarine.
      • naturally occuring organic compounds are based on esters made from an alcohol called glycerol.
    • Soap
      • Soap was the first detergent discovered to help dissolve oil in water.
      • Soaps are made from plants oils or animal fats that contain fatty acids.
      • To  convert oils into soap you have to boil the oils and fats with the potassium or sodium hydroxide.
        • It produces glycerol and salt of fatty acid
          • This process is called saponifcation
    • Detergents
      • A substance that in solution aids the removal of dirt from surface
      • Each detergent has a ..
        • Hydrophilic - water-loving end
        • Hydrophobic- water-hating end
      • Oils to do come off surfaces because it is immiscible with water. Detergents help oils mix with water so  oils can clean off
      • When detergents clean an item
        • Water hating side (hydrophobic) sticks to oil. Hydrophilic end is still in the water. The oil and grease is pulled off the item into the water
    • Surface tension is when intermolecularforces between liquid particles,pulling them together. This forces a surface which the rest of particles stay behind
      • Detergents contain substancesccalled surfactants that lower tension of water. This means oil can be pulled of surfaces

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