Occupation theorists

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  • Occupation Theorists
    • Pateman 1980
        • Oppressive (open expression of power)
        • Repressive (coercive attitude of power / minimisation of overt status differences
    • Swales 2011
        • Use specialist lexis and discourse
        • Shared set common goal
        • Communicate internally using and owning one or more genres of communication
        • Possess required level of knowledge and skill to be considered eligible to participate in the community
    • Drew and Heritage 1992
        • Hierarchy of power in organisations asymmetrical relationships are marked by language
          • Asymmetry (one speaker has more power in the conversation than the other, for example, a conversation between a boss and an employee
        • Shared inferential frameworks: implicit ways of thinking, communicating and behaving
        • Turn taking rules and restrictions, for example, a conversation between a doctor and a patient (doctor asks the questions)
        • Contributions towards restrictions on what is deemed 'allowable'.
        • Goal orientation (focused on 1 specific goal)
        • Professional lexis (Jargon)
        • Structure
    • Goffman 1959
        • Face ( public self image in which you try to protect)
        • Positive face ( desire to be liked / admired, related to positivity)
        • Negative face (desire not to be imposed upon, based on freedom of action)
    • Brown and Levenson 1978
        • Can be verbal, para-verbal or non-verbal
        • Face threatening acts inherently damages the face of the speaker by acting in opposition to their desires
        • Bold on record strategy ( doesn't minimise threats to listener
        • Off record indirect strategy (avoidance of direct face threatening act)
        • Positive politeness strategy (shows recognition of listeners desire to be respected, relationship is confirmed as friendly and expresses group reciprocity)
        • Negative politeness strategy ( recognises hearers face, you impose on them)
    • Grice 1967
      • MAXIMS
        • Manner (should be clear, orderly, brief and avoid ambiguity)
        • Relevance (should always relate to the purpose of the exchange)
        • Quality ( should always tell the truth)
        • Quantity (should be informative, however, not too much or too little)
    • French and Raven 1959
        • Legitimate power (based on position and power)
        • Referent power (based on interpersonal skills)
        • Expert power (based on skills and strengths)
        • Coercive power (use of negative influences)
        • Reward power (based on the ability to reward those who follow)
    • Koester 2004
        • Workers need to establish interpersonal relationships and have interactions that aren't just about work
        • Being sociable and engaging in personal chat is said to help effective working
        • The ability to connect with workmates add solidarity and dimension in the workplace community
        • Is important when 'getting jobs done'
    • Giles 1973
        • Divergence (use language to distance ourselves from others)
        • Convergence (use language to resemble that of people around us)


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