English Language- Language and Occupation

  • Created by: bethmci
  • Created on: 27-03-17 13:59
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    • AO2
      • GRICE'S MAXIMS- Quality, Quantity, Relevance and Manner
        • Lakoff added to these: Don't impose, give options and make the receiver feel good
      • Norman Fairclough- power asymmetry (one speaker has a higher role than another)
        • Unequal encounters (2001)- power and less powerful participants
          • Constraint- interrupting, holding the floor , intonation
      • Drew and Heritage (1993)- Discourse communities and inferential frameworks, specialist lexis, asymmetry and goal orientation
      • Koester (2004)- Phatic talk- needed to get the job done
        • Workers need to establish interpersonal relationships and have interations that are not just work related. Creates solidarity
      • Goffman 1955- Positive and negative face.This is his term for the image of ourselves that we present to other people. We use it when we speak of ‘losing face’ or ‘saving face’ Conversation is usually cooperative, so we tend to accept the ‘face’ that other people present to us.
        • Brown and Levinson- 1987- face is met by positive or negative politeness
      • Joh Swales (2011) Discourse Communities
      • HOWARD GILES- adjust our speech to accommodate the person we are speaking to
      • WAREING- categorized power into three types: Personal power (teachers and doctors), political power (politicians and the law) and social power (within social groups)
      • Holmes and Stubbe(2003)- idea of as part of a role or set of behaviours that individuals carry out a part of their organisation
      • Coulttard and Sinclair- IRF model (question, response, feedback
      • Drew and Heritage- 1993- inferential frameworks
        • Members of a discourse community share inferential frameworks, consisting of implicit ways of thinking, communicating and behaving. Suggests strong hierarchies of power within organisations.
      • Kim and Elder 2009- communication difficulties experienced by Korean pilots and air-traffic staff when communicating with American colleagues. Examples of miscommunication- abbreviating unhelpfully or elaborating unnecessarily and sometimes using idioms.
    • AO1
      • Instrumental power- power used to apply, exert of enforce power and authority
      • Inferential framework- knowledge is built up over time and used in order to understand meanings
      • Influential power- power used to influence/persuade others
      • Face-positive social value that we maintain in social interactions
        • Negative politeness- avoiding imposing on others. Achieved by saying please/apologising
          • Positive politeness- idea that you reduce the social difference of two people
            • Status-people of lower status tend to be more attentive to the face needs of those of a higher status than vice-versa. This is shown through deferential or respectful language.
        • Positive politeness- making the person feel good about themselves
        • Face threatening act- act that threatens someone's positive or negative face by not using tact
        • Face-saving act- saying something that reduces a possible threat to another person
        • Positive face- desire to be liked by others
        • Negative face- maintained when we don't feel constrained or impeded by others
      • Power asymmetry- a marked difference between two individuals in discourse
        • Asymmetrical power relationship- unequal power
      • Unequal encounter- highlights the power one speaker has over another
      • Powerful participant- speaker with a higher status in a given context, who is therefore able to imposer a degree of power
        • Less powerful participant- those with less power who are subject to constaints
        • Nexus- cluster of connections
      • Formulation- rewording another's contribution by a powerful participant to impose meaning or understanding
      • Covert presige- status given to non-standard forms
        • Overt prestige- status given to RP
      • Constraint- a limitation or restriction
      • Goal orientation- language targeted towards a certain goal
      • Restricted lexis- lexis found in certain occupations
        • EDD (estimated date of delivery), CPD (continued professional development), IEP (individual development plan)
      • Restricted usage- reduced form of language
        • Upwards Convergence- people change their language into a more prestigious form- more towards RP (interview)
      • Adjacency pair- a sequence of two utterances by two different speakers, first leads to second
      • Downwards convergence- someone with RP accent may tone it down to fit in with the speech of working class people.


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