Obedience to Authority

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  • Created by: Tasleem
  • Created on: 20-01-13 14:58
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  • Obedience to Authority
    • Obedience to unjust commands
      • Milgram (1974) variations
        • remote feedback - 66% obedience
        • voice feedback - 62% obedience
        • proximity - 40% obedience
        • touch proximity - 30% obedience
        • phone orders - 20.5% obedience
        • office setting - 48% obedience
        • ordinary man giving orders - 20% obedience
        • confederate refuses - 10% obedience
    • Validity of obedience research
      • Internal validity
        • Orne and Holland (1968) claimed Millgram experiment lacked experimental realism
        • Rosenhan (1969) replication
        • Demand characteristics of being in experiment rather than real-life
        • Participants were paid
        • measure of the extent to which the experimental design actually did the job it set out to do
      • External validity
        • lacked mundane realism
        • extent to which the results of a study can be applied to other situations and people
    • Why do people obey?
      • Erikson - human nature
      • Situational explanations
        • legitimate authority
        • gradual commitment
        • buffers
        • agentic versus autonomous state
      • Dispositional/ personality explanations
        • Authoritian personality
          • general hostility towards other groups
          • submissive attitudes towards authority figures
          • rigid beliefs in convectional values
          • intolerance of ambiguity
        • Adorno et al (1950)
        • Fascism Scale
    • Resisting obedience
      • educate people about "blind obedience"
      • remind people that they should take responsibility of their own actions
      • provide more role models who refuse toe obey
      • question the motives of authority when they issue unreasonable orders
      • Milgram and Asch show it is easier to resist when a confederate resists
    • Individual differences
      • Crowne and Marlowe (1964)
      • Stang (1972)
      • Kilham and Mann (1974)
      • Eagley and Carli (1981)
      • Burger and Cooper (1979)
      • high level of moral development
      • want to maintain control
      • confident
      • need to maintain individuality
      • high self esteem
      • low need for social approval

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