Nutritional needs during pregnancy

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    • CALCIUM - required in third trimester as skeleton develops. EXCESS - kidney stones, low zinc absorption. DEFICIENCY- increases risk of high bp. bone mineral density can be affected. prolonged labour + delayed recovery
      • Milk, dairy products, canned fish, fortified cereal, juice, soy + rice beverages, bread
    • VIT D - assist calcium absorption. extra 10mcg/day. EXCESS - raised blood calcium level resulting in tissue + vascular calcification (RARE) DEFICIENCY- loss of calcium from mothers skeleton + affect foetal bone development + limit d stores required for first few months
      • fish liver oil, fatty fish, eggs, fortified cheeses, yoghurts, cereals, milk
    • IRON - facilitate growth + development, produce extra blood cells + prepare for blood loss. provide baby with iron store for first 6 months. EXCESS- gastrointestinal diabetes / oxidative stress DEFICIENCY- risk of preterm birth, low birth weight + fetal/newborn death. anaemia
      • Red meat, chicken, eggs, dried beans, fortified grains, cereals, rice, dark green leafy veg
    • ZINC - cell growth + production + functioning of DNA. Supports immune system, maintain senses + heal wounds. EXCESS- Vomiting,nausea,diarrhoea, stomach aches. DEFICIENCY- Low birth weight, retarded foetal growth, lower resistance to infection, problems during delivery
      • beef, fortified cereals, pork, non--fat yoghurt, milk, baked beans, cashews, nuts, wholegrains, almonds
    • FOLATE- helps prevent NTDs + preeclampsia. 400mcg/day before pregnant. 600mcg/day once pregnant. EXCESS - nervous damage (autism), insulin resistance, obesity, cognitive impairment. DEFICIENCY-NTDS, anaemia
      • leafy green veg, citrus fruits, beans, breads, cereals, rice, pasta
    • VITAMIN C - improve immunity, prevent infections + disease. requirements increase 3rd trimester. EXCESS- risk of preterm birth, upset stomach, newborn scurvy, miscarriage (WATER SOLUBLE-RARE) DEFICIENCY- fetal brain damage, fatigue, gum inflammation, slow healing cuts, dry skin, bruises
      • orange juice, citrus fruits, leafy greens, fruits + veg, baked potato, kiwi, grapefruit
    • PROTEIN- more needed for growth of fetus + repair of mother's body tissue. EXCESS- unhealthy weight gain, impair fetal growth
      • beans, yoghurt, lean meat, poultry, fish + shellfish (not all safe during pregnancy), eggs, milk, cheese, tofu
    • ENERGY- Increased needs met with starchy carbs. EXCESS- risk of pregnancy + birth complications such as primary cesarian delivery + gestational diabetes
      • fresh fruit, dried fruit, fresh veg, wholegrain breads, crackers + cereals, baked potatoes, dried beans + peas


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