- Conscience = construct of the mind.
- 'guilt complex’; a thought process creates the guilt
- The starting point for guilt = Oedipus complex - need for it. Part of developmental stages happens in childhood. The Oedipus complex = when male child develops sexual desire for his mother. The sexual desire creates guilt and which leads the child to suppress desires.
- Female children also go through a similar stage called the Electra complex.
= three parts -
- id primitive part with basic drives and has no concern of the right and wrong; the ego the rational part that accommodates the environmental demands
- superego which conflicts id as it is the conscious part which contains right and wrong from environment.
- Superego = developed through childhood through learnt morals from authorities figures such as parents or teachers.
- His theory is therefore culturally relative and has no absolute moral code.
- humans are influence by authority figures: parents, teachers and church leaders.
- Guilty conscience = result of displeasing authorities: for Christian the authority figure = God + the fear of rejection plays a big part of guilt.
- we assesses + evaluate our behaviour by using our conscience + see how successful we are as humans. Throughout our life we add to our conscience through discoveries + teaching of others; make us better people
- conscience develops as we grow up.
- 2 types of
- Heteronomous Morality =immature conscience. Rules shouldn’t be broken + punishment = expected when rule broken. Consequences indicate whether action = moral/immoral. This conscience starts development at 5.
- Autonomous Morality = mature conscience when human able to develop own rules + less dependant of authority to indicate moral rules. This conscience starts around 10.
- Not all will fully develop their conscience +will stay at the heteronomous morality. Used train journey analogy, to explain moral characters development.
- identified four additional stages of moral
development. The four stages that followed Piaget heteronomous and autonomous
- Behaving in socially accepted way because of authority and want to gain approval
- Keeping the law
- Caring for others
- Respect universal principles and demands of the individual’s conscience.
- identified four additional stages of moral development. The four stages that followed Piaget heteronomous and autonomous morality are