Nurture on conscience

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  • Nurture
    • Freud
      • Conscience = construct of the mind.  
      • 'guilt complex’; a thought process creates the guilt
      • The starting point for guilt = Oedipus complex - need for it. Part of developmental stages happens in childhood. The Oedipus complex = when male child develops sexual desire for his mother. The sexual desire creates guilt and which leads the child to suppress desires. 
      • Female children also go through a similar stage called the Electra complex.
      • personality =  three parts - 
        • id primitive part with basic drives and has no concern of the right and wrong; the ego the rational part that accommodates the environmental demands
        • superego which conflicts id as it is the conscious part which contains right and wrong from environment. 
        • Superego =  developed through childhood through learnt morals from authorities figures such as parents or teachers.
      • His theory is therefore culturally relative and has no absolute moral code.
    • Fromm
      • humans are influence by authority figures: parents, teachers and church leaders. 
      • Guilty conscience = result of displeasing authorities: for Christian the authority figure = God + the fear of rejection plays a big part of guilt. 
      • we assesses + evaluate our behaviour by using our conscience + see how successful we are as humans. Throughout our life we add to our conscience through discoveries + teaching of others; make us better people
    • Piaget
      • conscience develops as we grow up. 
      • 2 types of conscience:
        • Heteronomous Morality =immature conscience. Rules shouldn’t be broken + punishment = expected when rule broken. Consequences indicate whether action = moral/immoral. This conscience starts development at 5.
        •   Autonomous Morality = mature conscience when human able to develop own rules + less dependant of authority to indicate moral rules. This conscience starts around 10.
      • Not all will fully develop their conscience +will stay at the heteronomous morality. Used train journey analogy, to explain moral characters development. 
    • Kohlberg
      • identified four additional stages of moral development. The four stages that followed Piaget heteronomous and autonomous morality are
        • Behaving in socially accepted way because of authority and want to gain approval
        • Keeping the law
        • Caring for others 
        • Respect universal principles and demands of the individual’s conscience.  


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