Nueral and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression

Looks at effects of Nuerotransmitters (Dopamina and Serotonin) and Hormones (Cortisol and Testosterone) on Aggression and inludes lots of research evaluation (AO2)

Carefully colour coded too!
Enjoy. 

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  • Created by: Marg
  • Created on: 18-04-14 16:49
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  • Nueral and Hormonal Mechanisms in Aggression
    • A.Nuero- transmitters
      • Chemicals that transmit impulses from a->b in brain
      • 2.Serotonin (S.)
        • Low levels in prefrountal cortext = less controll= aggression
        • Calming chemical
        • +ve Brown low levels of S. waste product in those that show aggro behaviour
        • +ve Mann et al weight loss (=depletes S. in levels) drug 35 healthy adults QA = hostility increased!!
        • Alternative Explaination
          • Not low levels of S. BUT by low S. metabolism which leads to increased receptors
            • increase no. of receptors= chronic S. depletion
          • Arora& Meltzer correlation violent suicide &elevated S. receptor density in pre frontal cortex
          • +ve Mann-among suicide "completers" increased no. of pre-frontal cortex S. receptors = more violent
      • 1.Dopamine (D)
        • +ve Lavine=increased D=increased aggro
        • anti-psychotic drugs & D antagonists block D production
          • successfully reduces violence :)
        • link isn't as well established as S.
        • produced when happy =rewarding
        • +ve Coupis people seek aggro for reward sensation(D)!
        • Hard to establish a link because cant experiment on humans dopamine on an animal brain makes it difficult for it to breath
      • +ve Ferrari et al. rat fight same time x10 days on 11th day no fight but highD and low S. levels in brain
        • experience changed brain chemistry
    • All yellowy oranges are A02!
    • B.Hormones
      • Chemicals that control and regulate bodily functions
      • 1.Cortisol
        • +ve Van Goozen claims there is a link
        • produced by adrenal medulla
        • inverse correlation, low levels of C=high aggression
          • This happens for 2 reasons
            • 1. LOW C levels= unpleasant =aggressive which provokes ANS activation&C release
            • 2.C plays an important meditating role in aggro by increasing chances of aggro
        • •McBurnett 38 7-12 boys with behaviour issues watched for 4 years. Salivary cortisol levels recorded
          • low cortisol =3x more aggro features and to be more likely to be labelled as mean by peers
        • -ve lack of consistent research evidence
      • 2.Testosterone(T)
        • Women
          • Smaller amounts
          • Convert DHEA what is produced in adrenal glands
        • Men
          • produced in testes typically in West levels decline with with age
        • makes aggro behaviour more likely
          • But not a direct correlation
            • -ve relationship is far from clear cut
        • Book meta analysis of 45 studies= AVERAGE correlation of 0.14 aggro and T
        • -ve inconsistent evidence
        • Zitzmann argues this link only relevant for weightlifters with extreme levels of T
        • Reduced T in older males= depressive disorders
          • +ve Barre-Connor increase age= increase depression= decreaseT
      • Endocrine system
      • +ve Popma found an important interaction between T & C+overt aggro,
        • Pos relationship with T and O.Aggro in those with LOW C but NOT HIGH
  • Alcohol and Serotonin
    • Badawy alcohol=depletion of S.
      • Alcoholics =more aggressive
    • 2.Serotonin (S.)
      • Low levels in prefrountal cortext = less controll= aggression
      • Calming chemical
      • +ve Brown low levels of S. waste product in those that show aggro behaviour
      • +ve Mann et al weight loss (=depletes S. in levels) drug 35 healthy adults QA = hostility increased!!
      • Alternative Explaination
        • Not low levels of S. BUT by low S. metabolism which leads to increased receptors
          • increase no. of receptors= chronic S. depletion
        • Arora& Meltzer correlation violent suicide &elevated S. receptor density in pre frontal cortex
        • +ve Mann-among suicide "completers" increased no. of pre-frontal cortex S. receptors = more violent
  • Badawy alcohol=depletion of S.
    • Alcoholics =more aggressive
  • B.Hormones
    • Chemicals that control and regulate bodily functions
    • 1.Cortisol
      • +ve Van Goozen claims there is a link
      • produced by adrenal medulla
      • inverse correlation, low levels of C=high aggression
        • This happens for 2 reasons
          • 1. LOW C levels= unpleasant =aggressive which provokes ANS activation&C release
          • 2.C plays an important meditating role in aggro by increasing chances of aggro
      • •McBurnett 38 7-12 boys with behaviour issues watched for 4 years. Salivary cortisol levels recorded
        • low cortisol =3x more aggro features and to be more likely to be labelled as mean by peers
      • -ve lack of consistent research evidence
    • 2.Testosterone(T)
      • Women
        • Smaller amounts
        • Convert DHEA what is produced in adrenal glands
      • Men
        • produced in testes typically in West levels decline with with age
      • makes aggro behaviour more likely
        • But not a direct correlation
          • -ve relationship is far from clear cut
      • Book meta analysis of 45 studies= AVERAGE correlation of 0.14 aggro and T
      • -ve inconsistent evidence
      • Zitzmann argues this link only relevant for weightlifters with extreme levels of T
      • Reduced T in older males= depressive disorders
        • +ve Barre-Connor increase age= increase depression= decreaseT
    • Endocrine system
    • +ve Popma found an important interaction between T & C+overt aggro,
      • Pos relationship with T and O.Aggro in those with LOW C but NOT HIGH

Comments

angiestocky

neural*

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