B1

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  • Created by: emrel
  • Created on: 23-03-14 16:05
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  • Cell
    • Nucleous
      • Chromosomes
        • Genes
          • DNA
            • Alleles
              • Alternate form of a gene
              • Recessive [rr]
              • Dominant overpowers recessive [Rr]
              • Dominant [RR]
              • Genotype
                • The letters [RR, rr, Rr]
              • Phenotype
                • The physical result e.g looks, no dimples
              • Hetrozygous
                • DIFFERENT
                  • E.g. Rr
                  • Straight
              • Homozygous
                • SAME
                  • Gay
                  • E.g. RR
              • Different combinations cause genetic variation in siblings
                • GENETIC
                  • weight
                    • ENVIRONMENTAL- caused by surroundings
                      • Skin tone
                        • GENETIC
                          • weight
                            • ENVIRONMENTAL- caused by surroundings
                              • Skin tone
                            • eye colour
                    • eye colour
                  • MUTATIONS CAUSE GENETIC DISORDERS
                    • CYSTIC FIBROSIS
                      • Caused by a recessive allle
                      • Symptoms can show from birth
                      • symptoms
                        • Malnutritoin
                        • Breathing is hard
                      • Causes build up of thick sticky mucus, causing large bacterial build up
                      • no cure, can be relieved using gene therapy
                        • Replacement of unhealthy DNA from cells
                    • HUNTINGTONS DISEASE
                      • Caused by a dominant allele
                      • Symptoms show 30-50 years old
                      • Symptoms
                        • Shaking
                        • Cannot walk
                      • Leads to death, no cure
                  • If you are not a sufferer but still have the allele you are a carrier.
              • Deoxyribonucleic acid
              • Types of genetic testing
              • Double heilex
            • Codes for a feature
              • 1 GENE
                • Dimples
              • SEVERAL GENES
                • Height
                • Weight
            • Make proteins
              • ANTIBODIES
                • Detects antigens
              • KERATIN
                • key component in hair ant nails
              • HORMONES
                • chemical messengers
          • Come in pairs of 23 in humans (46 in total). Half from each parent.
          • In humans the gender is decided by the  23rd pair
            • GIRL XX
            • BOY XY
              • Y chromosome carries a gene called the ‘sex-determining region Y’
                • causes testes to develop in an XY embryo
                • produce androgens
                  • male sex hormones.
                  • Androgens cause the embryo to become a male
                  • Without them, the embryo develops into a female
            • Secondary: puberty
            • Primary: sex oragans
          • Extra chromosomes can lead to downs syndrome or the embryo will never develop
          • Sex cells have half the normal cell count. A Zygote has the full amount (fertilised egg)
        • Control centre of cell
      • Stem cells
        • EMBRYONIC
          • Develops into all types of cells
        • ADULT
          • Develops into many but not all cells
        • Unspecialised/ Udifferentiated
        • Can develop into differnt cells
        • USES
          • Used to replace damaged tissue
          • Can be used to treat cancers like leukemia
          • Help with diabetes
        • specialisation happens in early stages
      • Cloning
        • naturally : identical twins; when a fertilised eggs cell splits; example of asexual reproduction in animals
        • artificially when the nucleus from a body cell is transferred to an empty egg cell or egg cell with nucleus removed; artificial splitting of embryos;
        • bacteria, plants and some animals can reproduce asexually to form clones
      • genetic testing
        • Unethical, playing god
        • False negatives and positives, not accurate

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