Nucleic Acids

Information on the structure and fomation of Nucleic Acids

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  • Created by: Bertimo
  • Created on: 25-02-14 21:43
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  • Nucleic Acids
    • Ribonucleic Acid
      • The sugar is Ribose
      • Consists of Adenine, Cytosine, Uracil and Guanine
      • Single stranded
      • Found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm
    • Deoxyribonucleic Acid
      • The Sugar is Deoxyribose
      • Consists of Adenine, Cytosine, Thymine and Guanine
      • Double stranded
      • DNA is longer than RNA
        • Ribonucleic Acid
          • The sugar is Ribose
          • Consists of Adenine, Cytosine, Uracil and Guanine
          • Single stranded
          • Found in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm
      • Functions
        • Replication in dividing cells
        • Carrying information for protein synthesis acorss all cells
    • Common traits
      • They both have a phosphate group holding together the backbone
      • They both have pentose sugars
      • They both have a nitrogenous base attached to the sugar
      • The monomer, a nucleotide, is made up of a phosphate group, bonded to a pentose sugar that has a nitrogenous base attached to it
    • Complementary Base Pairing
      • This means that only specific pairs of bases will bond
      • They bond by hydrogen bonds, holding the two stands in DNA together
      • Adenine-Thymine
        • Double Hydrogen Bond
      • Cytosine - Guanine
        • Triple Hydrogen Bond
      • Sometimes in RNA Thymine is replaced with Uracil
      • Purine and Pyrimidine Bases
        • Purine are bigger, Double ringed
          • Guanine And Adenine
        • Pyrimidine are smaller, Single ringed
          • Thymine, Cytosine and Uracil
        • Purine always bond with Pyrimidine
    • Polynucleotide chains
      • They consist of a phosphate sugar backbone
      • They are formed via condensation reactions, where water is created
      • The bond between the phosphate group and sugar is a Phosphodiester bond
      • they can be up to 100 nucleotides long

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