Nucleic acids

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  • Nucleic Acids
  • large, organic molecules
  • store + transmit genetic info
  • play a central role in building proteins
  • made of 5 carbon sugars, phosphate groups, nitrogenous bases + macromolecules
    • provide instructions for growth + development
  • Purines
    • 2 rings of C+ N
    • Examples: adenine + thymine
  • Pyrimidines
    • 1 ring of C+ N
    • Examples:  cytosine + guanine
  • made of smaller units called nucleotides
    • molecules that share a general chemical structure
  • Phosphate group contains P + O
  • Nitrogenous bases contain N
  • DNA + RNA
    • form when the sugar of 1 nucleotide, bonds with the phosphate group of another nucleotide
  • replication
    • producing an identical copy of DNA in newly formed cells
  • DNA
    • contains organism's genetic info
    • shaped like a twisted ladder or double helix
    • sugar always deoxyribose
    • 4 different nitrogenous bases: adenine, thymine, cytosine + guanine
    • H bonds form between the nitrogenous bases
      • 2 bonds between A + T, 3 between C + G
    • sequence in 1 strand of DNA determines another
  • RNA
    • uses  instructions in DNA to build proteins
    • sugar always ribose
    • instead of thymine, there is urancil
  • Transcription
    • messenger, ribosomal + transfer are produced for RNA

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