Nucleic acids and functions

a mindmap on the entire of the "nucleic acids and their functions" chapter of the eduqas biology AS textbook

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  • Nucleic acids and functions
    • general structure
      • pyrimidine
        • thymine, cytosine, uracil
      • purine
        • adenine, guanine
    • ATP
      • why ATP is better than glucose
        • universal energy source
        • only 1 enzyme required to release energy
        • only 1 reaction required to release energy
        • energy release is controlled and doesn't destroy cells
      • structure
        • ribose sugar
        • adenine base
        • three phosphate groups
      • function
        • not an energy store- energy currency
        • ATP + H20--> ADP + Pi
        • userd to provide energy for:
          • secretion
          • nerve transmission (pumping ions)
          • metabolic processes
          • active transport
          • movement
    • Protein synthesis
      • transcription
        • occurs in nucleus
        • enzymes
          • DNA helicase
            • breaks hydrogen bonds between bases to unwind double helix and expose bases
          • RNA polymerase
            • binds to DNA template strand
              • free RNA nucleotides align against complementary bases
              • moves along DNA template forming bonds between RNA nucleotides
                • RNA strand synthesised alongside DNA strand
            • separates from strand when stop codon is reached
              • leaves nucleus through a nuclear pore
      • translation
        • ribosomes
          • 2 subunits
            • larger subunit attaches to 2 tRNA molecules
            • smaller subunit binds to the mRNA
          • provide framework for translation
        • initiation
          • elongation
            • termination
              • sequence continues until stop codon is reached
                • ribosome-mRNA-polypeptide complex separates
            • peptide bonds form between adjacent amino acids
              • the 1st tRNA leaves the ribosome
                • RNA moves along one codon
                  • next tRNA binds
          • ribosome attaches to start codon
            • complementary tRNA binds to large unit
              • hydrogen bonds form
    • Extra bits?
      • 1 gene is equal to one polypeptide
      • the gene base sequence only codes for primary structure
        • post translational modifications can occur
          • golgi body can further fold the polupeptide into secondary, tertiary, quaternary structures
          • can bind with other proteins
            • eg haemoglobin


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