Nucleic acids 

  • Created by: gsemma
  • Created on: 07-03-19 09:51
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  • Nucleic acids
    • Nucleotides, ATP and ADP
      • Bases
        • Guanine
          • Purines
            • bond together
              • Pyrimidines
              • Hydrogen bonds
                • strong enough to maintian DNA and weak enough to be unzipped
        • Thymine (DNA only)
          • Pyrimidines
        • Adenine
          • Purines
            • bond together
              • Hydrogen bonds
                • strong enough to maintian DNA and weak enough to be unzipped
        • Cytosine
          • Uracil (RNA only)
            • structure
        • Sugar phosphate backbone
          • nucleotides bond my a condensation reaction to form phosphodiester bonds between the ribose sugar and phosphate groups
            • the continuous chain forms the protective backbone which protects the highly reactive bases
              • Sugar phosphate backbone
                • nucleotides bond my a condensation reaction to form phosphodiester bonds between the ribose sugar and phosphate groups
                  • the continuous chain forms the protective backbone which protects the highly reactive bases
                    • two polynucleotide chains running in antiparallel in a double helix shape
                      • codes for millions of different proteins
                        • Deoxyribose Acid (DNA)
                          • two polynucleotide chains running in antiparallel in a double helix shape
                            • codes for millions of different proteins
                              • Deoxyribose Acid (DNA)
                                • function
                                  • infomation store- triplet codes for protein synthesis
                                  • needs to be replicable- preserve vase pairing preserving infomation
                                  • long molecule - lots of info can be stored- double helix provides stability
                                • to extract- break up DNA containing tissue, add a detergent and shake with ethanol to precipitate the DNA out of the solution
                                • DNA replication
                                  • 1. DNA unzips breaking the H bonds. Enzyme- DNA Helicase
                                    • 2. Exposed nucleotides act as a template for new DNA strand
                                      • 3. free nucleotides move towards base pairs
                                        • 4. DNA polymerase bonds to nucleotides forming new SP backbone
                                          • 5. semi-conservative- one original strand and one new strand
                                            • preserves genetic infomation and coding for the specific proteins mutations do rarely occur
                                              • evidence- labelling nucleotides with different N isotopes
                                                • 1. grow bacteria on a medium containing only 15N. bacteria will only have 15N in DNA
                                                  • 2. transfer bacteria to medium containing only 14N and allow to reproduce once.
                                                    • 3. extract DNA
                                                      • 4. if DNA contains a mixture of half 14N and half 15N semiconservativeve
                          • function
                            • infomation store- triplet codes for protein synthesis
                            • needs to be replicable- preserve vase pairing preserving infomation
                            • long molecule - lots of info can be stored- double helix provides stability
                          • to extract- break up DNA containing tissue, add a detergent and shake with ethanol to precipitate the DNA out of the solution
                          • DNA replication
                            • 1. DNA unzips breaking the H bonds. Enzyme- DNA Helicase
                              • 2. Exposed nucleotides act as a template for new DNA strand
                                • 3. free nucleotides move towards base pairs
                                  • 4. DNA polymerase bonds to nucleotides forming new SP backbone
                                    • 5. semi-conservative- one original strand and one new strand
                                      • preserves genetic infomation and coding for the specific proteins mutations do rarely occur
                                        • evidence- labelling nucleotides with different N isotopes
                                          • 1. grow bacteria on a medium containing only 15N. bacteria will only have 15N in DNA
                                            • 2. transfer bacteria to medium containing only 14N and allow to reproduce once.
                                              • 3. extract DNA
                                                • 4. if DNA contains a mixture of half 14N and half 15N semiconservativeve
        • Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
          • a short polynucleotide chain
            • used to transfer genetic infomation to ribosomes for protein synthesis.
              • Ribonucleic acid (RNA)
                • a short polynucleotide chain
                  • used to transfer genetic infomation to ribosomes for protein synthesis.
          • ATP and ADP
            • ATP- adenosine triphosphate- three phosphate bases
              • ATP dephosphorylated into ADP- catalysed by the enzyme ATP hydrolase
                • ADP- adenosine diphosphate- two phosphates
                • uses
                  • Metabolic proceses
                    • Anabolic- building molecules form smaller ones
                    • Catabolic- breaking down molecules into smaller ones
                  • Movement- muscle contraction requires ATP
                  • Active transport- carrier proteins use it to change shape and move molecules against the conc' grad.
                  • Secretion- formation of vesicles
                  • Activation of molecules- inorganic phosphate produced in ATP hydrolysis id used to phosphorylate other molecules making them more reactive
            • ADP- adenosine diphosphate- two phosphates
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