3.1.5 Nucleic acids are important information-carrying molecules aqa Biology

went through the specification - so this is everything you need to know about Nucleic acids.

specification says "Students could use incomplete information about the frequency of bases on DNA strands to find the frequency of other bases" however this is not mandatory

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  • nucleic acids
    • Structure of DNA and RNA
      • DNA
        •  DNA and  RNA are important information carrying molecules 
          • RNA
            • transfers genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes
            • Ribosomes are formed from RNA and proteins
            • monomer = nucleotides
            • RNA bases
              • adenine
              • uracil (replaces thymine)
              • guanine
              • cytosine
            • steucture
              • An RNA molecule is a relatively short polynucleotide chain
        • holds genetic information
        • monomer = nucleotides
        • DNA bases
          • adenine
          • guanine
          • cytosine
          • thymine
        • structure
          • double helix
          • two polynucleotide chains held together by hydrogen bonds
            • 2 between adenine and thymine
            • 3 between guanine and cytosine
          • specific complementary base pairs
      • RNA
        • transfers genetic information from DNA to the ribosomes
        • Ribosomes are formed from RNA and proteins
        • monomer = nucleotides
        • RNA bases
          • adenine
          • uracil (replaces thymine)
          • guanine
          • cytosine
        • steucture
          • An RNA molecule is a relatively short polynucleotide chain
      • nucleotides
        • A condensation reaction between two nucleotides forms a phosphodiester bond
        • Each nucleotide is formed from a pentose, a nitrogen-containing organic base and a phosphate group
      • appreciate that the relative simplicity of DNA led many scientists to doubt that it carried the genetic code
    • DNA replication
      • semi conservative
        • ensures genetic continuity between generations of cells
        • process
          • 1. unwinding of the double helix
            • 2. breakage of hydrogen bonds between complementary bases in the polynucleotide strands 
              • by DNA helicase
              • 3. attraction of new DNA nucleotides to exposed bases on template strands and base pairing
                • 4. the role of DNA polymerase in the condensation reaction that joins adjacent nucleotides
        • evaluate the work of scientists in validating the Watson–Crick model of DNA replication
      • other methods
        • why are they not correct?

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