Northern Rebellion

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  • Northern Rebellion
    • 1569
    • CAUSES
      • Many people in the North had retained their Catholic faith over Elizabeth's protestant faith
      • Elizabeth tried to put power into people she trrusted, meaning Catholic Northerners, Earl of Westmoreland and Earl of Northumberland lost power.
      • Norfolk disliked Elizabeth's chief adviser, Cecil.
      • Mary QofS was seen as a better fit for Queen to Catholics as they thought Elizabeth was illegitimate.
      • Duke of Norfolk wanted to marry Mary QofS to gain power and overthrow Elizabeth, however the marriage was stopped by Elizabeth
      • Elizabeth had worked to weaken families in the North
    • EVENTS
      • Norfolk started gaining supporters for his cause. He gained support of Elizabeth's councilors: Sir Nicholas Throckmorton + Robert Dudley
      • Dudley confessed Norfolk's plans to marry Mary - Norfolk was arrested and imprisoned
      • After Norfolk's arrest there were still rumors of rebellion, Elizabeth summoned Earl of Northumbeland and Earl of Westmoreland to court.
        • Being summoned to court, Westmoreland and Northumbeland started the rebellion.
      • On 9th November 1569 the two earls joined fores at Brancepath church and called others to rebel.
      • Nearly 5000 people joined the rebellion and moved through North of England.
      • 14th November they illegally held mass before heading further south to Durham Cathedral.
      • By December, they had captured Barnard Castle and the port of Hartlepool.
      • The rebels were expecting help from Spain arriving at the port, but it never came.
      • The Earls could not properly mobilize their army and did not have a clear strategy, key northern cities were still held by Elizabeth
      • A royal army marched North to meet the rebels and after a short battle, the Earls were forced into Scotland on 19th December
    • CONSEQUENCES
      • Elizabeth strengthened her council in the North and confiscated the land of rebels.
      • Northumberland was betrayed by a Scottish clan, eventually being beheaded at York in 1572.
      • The Privy Council demanded Norfolk's execution, but Elizabeth, out of family loyalty, decided to imprison him at Tower of London.He was released after 9 months in August 1570
      • Directly led to the Ridolfi Plot, 1571

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