Non-Verbal Communication

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  • Non-Verbal Communication
    • What is it?
      • Body language
      • Consciously&sub-consciously illustrates relationships with emotions and others
      • CODES we can analyse to de-code emotions, social interaction and relationships
    • Functions
      • Accompanies our words- underlining/ reinforcing verbal signals
        • E.g Gesticulation
        • May contradict what is said
        • Argyle. NVC is 5X more effective. However, VC necesary for full understanding
      • Replaces speech if there are barriers to VC
      • Helps to coordinate turn-taking
        • Non verbal cues- more reliable guide to feelings
        • Desmond Morris- "Non-verbal leakage"
      • Self presentation
      • Social rituals and signifying changes in role/status
    • Eye contact
      • Using our eyes in social interaction
      • Signals attention and understanding
      • Provides feedback and illustrates turn-taking
      • Lack of eye contact-> lack of interest/ confidence
      • Cultural. Britain taught rude to stare
    • Facial Expression
      • In born and universal. Same expression can be used in different cultures
      • Communicates friendship & danger
      • Visible when words unavailable e.g dangerous situation
      • Ekman & Friesen (1972) 6 universal expressions
        • Anger
        • Sadness
        • Happiness
        • Surprise
        • Fear
        • Disgust
    • Gestures
      • An action that communicates some meaning in an interaction
      • Conscious or Unconscious
        • Deliberate-e.g beckoning
        • Involuntary e.g scratching your head to communicate nervousness
    • Posture
      • The way we unconsciously arrange our bodies when we stand/sit/lie down/walk
      • MAKE a gesture but ADOPT  a posture
      • The communicators intenions
      • Relationships-unconscious imitation illustrates closeness
        • Postural echo/postural congruence
        • Stronger bond-more mirroring of body movements
      • IMMEDIACY
        • Leaning forward, touching, close proximity, direct gaze or eye contact,  direct orientation
        • Attraction/ friendship/  mild submission
      • Relaxation
        • Symmetrical positioning of arms & legs. Upright torso and upper body. Sideways/ backwards lean. Relaxed hands
        • Confidence, power, authority, higher status, domination
    • Proximity
      • Power/role/status
      • The distance between the individual and who they're communicating with
      • Rules differ between cultures
        • Britain- more protective of personal space and dislikes close proximity
      • Intimacy Equilibrium Argyle & Dean (1995)
        • Interaction which takes place in a confined space with strangers
        • Compensates for socialsituation
        • Reduces body, cease eye contact and put up barriers
    • Orientation
      • The way we position ourselves in relation to others
      • More we face someone- more attention given
      • Hostility-turning your back
      • Attraction- feet pointing towards them
    • Touch
      • Non verbal communication through physical contact
      • Active/Haptic
        • Explore envirmonment
      • Passive
        • Receive from others
      • Rules and taboos
      • Can have a range of meanings. Can be decoded
      • Gender touches differently
      • Jones & Yarborough (1985)
        • Playful
        • Control
        • Rituals
        • Positive effect (reassurance- sexual)
        • Mixed
        • Task related
        • Accidental
    • Paralanguage
      • A form on NVC which uses the voice
        • VOCAL but non-verbal
      • English is stressed and therefore creates intonation in voices and speech
      • Controlled Paralanguage
        • Can illustrate that the person is confident and articulate
        • Power and status
      • Uncontrolled Paralanguage
        • Can illustrate that the person is nervous, lacks confidence or is unprepared
      • Ums, ers, utterances, filters, pauses, intonation, tone, pitch, volume, speed, hesitancy, breaths
    • Dress & Appearance
      • Expresses personality and identity
      • Job role and occupation
      • Status and power
      • Specific occasion
      • Group membership (subculture)

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