Non Verbal Communication

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • Non-Verbal Communication
    • How do we communicate?
      • Tone (Argyle, Alkema and Gilmour)
        • Effect when interpreting a verbal message.
          • Groups listned to messages spoken in different tone to the message (Hostile and Friendly)
            • Tone of voice had 5 times the effect of the verbal messag itself. Extremely important in how people interpret verbal messages.
      • Paralinguistics (Davitz and Davitz)
        • Effect on the assessment of emotion.
          • Assessment from a tape recording to assess tone of voice, emphasis and intonation.
            • High level of accuracy of the recognition of affection, amsusement disgust and fear. Great importance when jusging emotion
    • How do we use eye contact?
      • Eye movement (Kendon)
        • Affect on flow of conversation.
          • Conversations were observed through a mirror.
            • Prolonged looks were used to indicate turn taking whilst conversating. If no prolonged look there was a pause. Signals turn taking.
      • Interruption of eye contact (Argyle)
        • Affect on conversation.
          • observed having conversations where one person wears glasses and the other one doesn't.
            • The conversations with glasses had more pasues and interruption. Important to ensure the smooth flow of conversation.
    • How do we use facial expression?
      • Hemispeheres of the brain (Sackeim)
        • Relationship between facial expression and hemispheres of the brain.
          • New pictures were created with each half of a face. The face showed had an emotion.
            • The left fhalf of the face was preffered they were thought to be 'warmer'. Left side expresses emotion more than the right side.
    • How do we use body language?
      • Touch (Fisher, Rytting and Heslin)
      • Posture (McGinley)
        • Effect of postural echo when conversating
          • In half of the meetings the confederate echoed the posture of the other person.
            • When postural echo was used they liked the confederate. Opposite for the ones without postural echo. Unconscious message of friendliness.
      • Gestures (Lynn and Mynier)
        • Affect of gestures on tipping behaviour
          • waitresses either stood up or squat down near the customer.
            • When waitresses squat down larger tips were recieved. Gesture of squatting down near a customer will have a positive effect on tipping.
      • Open and close posture (McGinley, Lefevre and McGinley)
        • Effect of open and closed posture when conversating.
          • In half of the conversations the confedarte adopted a closed then other half had closed posture.
            • Open posture showed friendliness and attractiveness. Closed showed unfriendly and less attractive. adopted posture will a difference on how much they are liked.
    • How important is personal space?
      • Staus differences (Zahn)
        • Affect on personal space
          • observed  equal and unequal status people approsaching each other
            • Lower status people didnt approach people of a higher status as with the same status. Space varies between difference in status
      • Cultural differences (Summer)
        • Use of personal space
      • Sex differences (Argyle and Dean)
        • Affect on Personal space
          • Opposite sex and same sex were asked to sit and coversate and eye contact was used.
            • Eye contact tended to break and distance was greater between 2 genders. Greater amount of distance between opposite sex in conversation.
      • Age differences (Willis)
        • Affect on personal space
          • 800 individulas observed in different social situations.
            • Own aged people stood closer and away from elder or younger people. Affects closeness of standing.


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Non-verbal communication resources »