Non-fluency features

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  • Non-Fluency Features
    • False Starts
      • Occur when an utterance is started one way, is unfinished and then completely abandoned for another structure
        • 'My Mum won't (.) well we want'
    • Fillers
      • Think of sound
        • "um.." and "er.."
      • Used to give a speaker thinking time
    • Hesitations
      • Sounds which aren't words are used to fill pauses
      • In Britain, these sounds tend to be  represented by: er, erm and em
    • Pause Fillers
      • One of the ways to fill what could be an embarrassing silence with extra words
      • Confined to words such as...
        • Well
        • Sort of
        • Like
      • They also functions. e.g. helping to start off an utterance
        • Initiators like: well
          • Make the speaker sound less pedantic
            • Softeners like sort off
              • Indicating the end of an utterance
                • e.g. 'like' in some parts of the country
        • Indicating the end of an utterance
          • e.g. 'like' in some parts of the country
        • Make the speaker sound less pedantic
          • Softeners like sort off
        • Thought as of  fairly meaningless  in addition to the main utterance
      • Non-fluent pausing
        • Occurs in the middle of a structure where no punctuation would occur in writing
          • "It's Southall's er (.) goal kick."
          • Pausing can also be non-fluent if there are no pauses where punctuation would normally occur in writing
            • "there is a free kick against Viv Anderson Everton don't like that decision."
              • While if it was written
                • "there is a free kick against Viv Anderson, Everton don't like that decision."
        • Some individuals call non-fluent pauses, hesitations
      • Recycling
        • Similar to repetition
          • but it involves a hitch in production
            • Where the initial sound(s) of a word are repeated before the speaker managed to get the word out
              • 'th. the hairs'
              • NOT A KIND OF STAMMERINAND STUTTERING
      • Repetition
        • In this context is unintentional and involves the repetition of identical words and structures next to eahc othe
          • 'her pillow is her pillow'
            • My favorite painting is the painting I did of my dog in that painting in my den.
      • Vague Completers
        • "and all that"
        • "and everything"
        • Used to round off an utterance
      • Self corrections or repairs
        • When the speaker realizes they have made a mistake and correct it
          • 'you've got the stirrups and (.) i mean the girth."

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