Non-fatal offences (assault and battery)

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  • Created by: Amy Baron
  • Created on: 09-05-13 17:03
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  • Non-fatal offences (s.39 CJA 1988
    • Assault
      • A/R- An act causing a person to apprehend immediate unlawful violence
        • Fagan v MPC 1969 set out this definition
          • M/R- Intention or recklessness (basic intent crime)
            • DPP v Majewski 1976
              • If D is intoxicated when he commits the A/R it is considered to be a reckless act. Public policy grounds
            • Subjective (cunningham) recklessness - foresee a risk and take it anyway (unjustified)
        • R v Constanza 1997
          • Words may amount to an assault
        • R v Wilson 1995
          • Words may amount to an assault
        • R v Ireland 1997
          • Silent telephone calls could constitute an assault
        • R v Smith 1983
          • Threat must be of immediate violence - e.g. not from a passing train
      • M/R- Intention or recklessness (basic intent crime)
        • DPP v Majewski 1976
          • If D is intoxicated when he commits the A/R it is considered to be a reckless act. Public policy grounds
        • Subjective (cunningham) recklessness - foresee a risk and take it anyway (unjustified)
      • Must be a positive act so an omission is insufficient
    • Battery
      • A/R-  applies unlawful physical force to another person
        • Collins v Wilcock 1984
          • It need not be a serious attack, unlawful touching will do
        • Fagan v MPC 1969
          • Application of force can be indirect
            • DPP v K 1990
          • Deliberately driving over someone's  foot is battery
        • DPP v K 1990
      • M/R- Intention or recklessness (basic intent crime)
        • DPP v Santana-Bermudez 2003
          • If D is under a duty then he/she may commit a battery through an omission
    • Both are common law offences

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