Psychology: Non-verbal communication- case studies

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  • Non-verbal   Communication
    • Verbal Communication
      • Argyle, Alkema, Gilmour
        • Aim-To see if the tone of voice affects how we interpret verbal messages.
        • Method- Participants listened to either friendly messages with a hostile tone or hostile messages with friendly tone of voice.
        • Results: When the participants were asked to interpret these messages it was found that the tone of voice had 5 times the effect of the verbal message itself,
        • Conclusion: The tone of voice is very important when it comes to interpreting messages.
      • Davitz and Davitz
        • Aim: To see if paralinguistics have and effect on the assessment of emotion
        • Method- The participants were asked to listen to tape recording of emotions expressed through paralinguistics
        • Results- There was a high level of accuracy in detecting these emotions: affection, amusement, disgust and fear.
        • Conclusion- Paralinguistic has a large impact when judging emotion.
    • Eye contact
      • Argyle
        • Aim- To see if interrupting eye contact can affect a conversation.
        • Method-Pairs of participants were observed whilst having a conversation. In half of the pairs one of the pair was wearing dark glasses to prevent the other from receiving eye contact.
        • Results-When one of the pairs were wearing dark glasses there were more pauses and interruptions than when dark glasses were not worn.
        • Conclusion- Eye contact is important in order for a conversation to flow smoothly and with fewer interruptions
      • Hess
        • Aim- To see the effect of pupil dilation on emotion.
        • Method- Participants were shown two nearly identical images of the same girl. The only difference was that in one of the pictures the pupils were more dilated than the other picture. The participants were asked which one they found more attractive.
        • Results-Majority of the participants said that the picture with more dilation of the pupil was more attractive however could not say exactly why.
        • Conclusion- Pupil dilation has an unconscious but powerful affect on emotion
    • Facial Expression
      • Sackeim
        • Aim-To look at the relationship between facial expressions and the hemispheres of the brain.
        • Method- Pictures of people's faces showing different emotions were cut down the middle. new pictures were created with each half face and its mirror image. Then the new images were shown to the participants and were asked which they liked better.
        • Results- The majority of the participants said they preferred the picture they preferred the left half face and its reflection. When asked why they said the person in the picture looked 'warmer'
        • Conclusion- The left side of the face seems to express emotion much more than the right side


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