Non-biological explanations of criminality

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  • Non-physiological Explanations of Criminality
    • Farrington
      • Cambridge upbringing study
      • Sample
        • 411 boys at age 8
      • Method
        • Interviewed as boys, adolescents and adults
      • Findings
        • Risk factors; Family, criminality, risk-taking, low school attainment, poverty, poor parenting
      • Conclusion
        • Factors could be addressed and intervention at an early age can reduce the risks of turning to crime
    • Sutherland
      • Learning criminal behaviour from others
      • Theory
        • More contact with attitudes to criminal behavior, more expose to criminal behavior in family and friends makes the person more likely to commit crime
      • Evaluation
        • Reductionist
        • Helps explain some types of crime that biology fails to
          • White-collar crimes like stealing office supplies because 'everyone else does it'
    • Palmer and Hollin
      • Level of moral development
      • Sample
        • 126 convicted criminals between 13 + 21
      • Method
        • Comparing young offenders and non-offenders
      • Data
        • Questionnaire
          • Socioeconomic status
          • Psychometric measures
            • Socio-moral reflection - truth, affiliation, life, poverty, law and legal justice
            • Self-reported delinquency - exhibiting different levels of delinquent behaviors
    • Evaluation of Research
      • Methods
        • Self-report
          • Increased validity - More depth and detail and can ask about about lots of things
          • Issues of validity - social desirability
          • Issues of validity - memory (asking after event)
        • Longitudinal
          • Valid data - less reliant on memor
          • Uncover variables - compare and contrast peoples upbringing
          • Criminals are more likely to drop out (panel attrition - unrepresentative)
      • Sample
        • Prisoners and criminals
          • Doesn't explain non-criminals
          • Been in prison start to say things
          • Ressricted samples
    • Issues
      • Free will / Deterministic
        • Deterministic - environment determines criminality
      • Situational / Individual
        • Situational - environment makes us a criminal
        • Individual - Moral development explnantion
      • Nature / Nurture
        • Nurture - Environment changes our behaviour
      • Reductionist / Holistic
        • Reductionist - doesn't look at biology
        • Holistic - Longitudinal studies are more holistic look at biology aswell
      • Socially sensitive?
        • Yes - parents could be blamed for kids being criminals

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