non-communicable diseases - smoking

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  • Smoking
    • Nicotine
      • addictive but harmless
      • provides a calm feeling, feeling of being able to cope
      • mimics a neurotransmitter molecule which releases dopamine, making the person calm
        • the person becomes accustomed to this- when they stop smoking there is a chemical imbalance- withdrawal symptoms
    • Carbon monoxide
      • poisonous gas which enters the bloodstream
      • occupies 10% of oxygen carrying capacity
        • person doesn't get enough oxygen, loss of breath when exercising
      • pregnancy issues
        • baby gets 10% less oxygen than they should
          • premature
          • underweight
          • stillborn
          • learning disability/ mental illness
    • Carcinogens
      • cilia in trachea and bronchi become anaesthetised by chemicals
        • allows dirt and bacteria into the lungs leading to infections
        • mucus build up leads to more coughing
      • tobacco contains tar -  a black sticky substance
        • turns the lungs from pink to black
        • destructs alveoli and decreases lung surface area (COPD)
        • along with other chemicals, it increases the chances of developing bronchitis (inflammation of the bronchi)
        • acts on delicate cells of the lungs- higher risk of lung cancer developing
    • The heart
      • nicotine increases the heart rate
        • increase in blood pressure
          • smoking makes the blood vessels thinner, aging them
      • chemicals damage the lining of the arteries
      • smoking makes the blood vessels thinner, aging them
      • makes coronary heart disease more likely
        • higher chance of blood clots


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