Nicholas II's accession to the throne (1)

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  • Created by: MonsurAli
  • Created on: 03-06-17 12:55
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  • Nicholas II's accession to the throne
    • Ominous start: 'Khodynka Field'
      • To celebrate the Tsar's coronation, he offered free food, drink etc.
      • However in a rush to see the Tsar, 1400 died in a stampede. The Tsar continued (dancing etc.) and later on visited the hospital and gave money to the families.
      • This was a bad omen as his rise to the throne has already resulted in the deaths of his people.
    • Emergence of new public culture
      • Peasants had more power due to education and the govt now serving the state. Now the govt were not the only 'organised force' in Russia.
      • Institutions became more independent making the regime weaker.
      • New culture (NOT CLASS) emerged; allowed peasants to speak their minds and peasants/serfs became more professional. However this culture was too split and fragile to ever be a middle class.
      • Famine displayed weakness of the regime and there was a violent revolution in the background of all of this.
    • Two main groups of opposition
      • Zemstvo men: Mostly land owners (Prince Lvov). After the famine, Zemstva's were left to handle the state. They wanted ordinary people to play a part in politics and the monarchy to improve the lives of its subjects. They did not want a revolution; just an increase in influence of the zemstva.
        • However the Tsar disagreed with them and made them more hostile by shutting them down, cutting funding, and he essentially created his main form of opposition: Beseda.
      • University students: 'student' and 'revolutionary' are synonyms in Russian. Students were heavily affected by the famine and lectures turned into hot beds of socialist discussion. There was a movement of 70,000 students.
        • They traditionally celebrate their graduation in the city centre, however it was shut down by police causing unrest. 13 were killed, 1500 imprisoned, Led to increases in policing and thousands of students joining the SR's.
    • Years of the Red Cockerel (1903-04)
      • Name comes from countless instances of arson (lighting things on fire) in the countryside.
      • Unrest at its worst in central provinces where peasant/landlord relationships were traditional.
      • Stolypin fueled it even more by flogging and 'Stolypin's Necktie'.
      • Strikes escalated from 17,000 in 1894 to 90,000 in 1904.
      • 1900, Zubatov organised a police sponsored union to reduce amount of illegal unions. However this was unsuccessful and shut down in 1903 due to taking part in the Odessa strikes.
        • However another union like this was created: St Petersburg Factory Workers 1904 led by Father Gapon. It was approved by the Minister of Internal Affairs (Plehve) and had the support of the Orthodox Church. Had 12 branches and 8000 members.

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