The New Poor Law

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  • Created by: Isabella
  • Created on: 22-04-13 16:59
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  • New Poor Law (Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
    • Pressures for change
      • Rising costs of the Old Poor Law
      • Corrupt  administrators(Overseers of the Poor)
      • The impact of war (Napoleonic wars)
      • Concerns about people having "the right to relief"
      • Encouraging  idleness
      • Prevailing theories
    • The Report (The Royal Commission)
      • Edwin  Chadwick and  Nassau Senior lead it
      • 27 Assistant Commissioners who went around the UK
      • Problems with the report
        • Written before all questionnaires were returned
        • Report written with bias
        • Predominately from the South
        • 10% of parishes replied to the inquiries
      • Recommendations of the Report
        • Abolishing relief outside the Work house
        • Separate workhouses for different classes of paupers
        • Very bad conditions in WHs, so only the really needy would enter
        • Unions of 30 parishes formed- Boards of Guardians set up to replace Overseers
        • A central authority to administer the  law
    • The Poor Law Commission
      • New central authority, temporary
      • Based in London- did not know what was happening in rural areas
      • INDEPENDENT from Parliament
      • The Three Bashaws of Somerset House
        • George Nicholls, former overseer of the poor
        • John Shaw Levfevre,lawyer
        • Thomas Frankland Lewis, Chairman and  former Tory MP
      • Implemented in the South first
      • Used Assistant Commissioners to implement the law, as a result they became skilled negotiators
      • Replaced by the Poor Law Board in 1847,  then the Local Government Board in 1871
      • The Andover Scandal
        • At the Andover Scandal
        • Discovered that there was pauper abuse going on, from sexual abuse by the Master (Colin M'Dougal) and his son, to starving paupers sucking bones because they are so hungry
        • Bought down the PLC
        • The PLC blamed Henry Parker, AC for the area
        • This failed because the PLC had reduced the number of ACs from 21 to 9, making his job harder
        • Lead  to Poor Law Board, which had Government involvement
    • The Act: The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834
      • Hardly any Parliament opposition
      • Stark contrast to the protests and riots when it was implemented
      • Set up the Poor Law Commission
      • Provisions of the Act
        • Central authority to be set up to supervise and  regulate the administering of the new law
        • Parishes grouped together in unions
          • Board s of Guardians for each union
        • Outdoor  relief discouraged
        • Work houses established for each union, in which conditions will  be worse then that of the lowest class of labourer living outside the WH
      • KEY ELEMENT: LESS ELIGIBILTY
    • Opposition
      • In the South
        • 1835- started implementation
        • In the middle of economic recovery
        • Still some opposition
        • Magistrates/clergy/poor teamed  up to oppose it
        • Protests in Buckinghamshire when paupers were transported to the new WH
        • New workhouses attacked in East Anglia
        • Overall success, with good harvests and more or less content workforce
        • Influential citizens used their positions to rebel against the implementation
      • In the North
        • Cyclical employment rife
        • Started in 1837 in an economic meltdown against advice of EC
        • Large opposition from all sides
        • Anti- PL Associations sprung up
        • Radicals and Tories joined together to oppose it
        • Armed riots and mobs in many cities, Army was called in
        • Outdoor relief continued
  • Bought down the PLC
  • Opposition
    • In the South
      • 1835- started implementation
      • In the middle of economic recovery
      • Still some opposition
      • Magistrates/clergy/poor teamed  up to oppose it
      • Protests in Buckinghamshire when paupers were transported to the new WH
      • New workhouses attacked in East Anglia
      • Overall success, with good harvests and more or less content workforce
      • Influential citizens used their positions to rebel against the implementation
    • In the North
      • Cyclical employment rife
      • Started in 1837 in an economic meltdown against advice of EC
      • Large opposition from all sides
      • Anti- PL Associations sprung up
      • Radicals and Tories joined together to oppose it
      • Armed riots and mobs in many cities, Army was called in
      • Outdoor relief continued

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