Neurons & Synaptic Transmission

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  • Neurons & Synaptic Transmission
    • Types of Neurons
      • Relay
        • Found in the brain or spinal cord.
        • Allows sensory & motor neurons to communicate.
      • Sensory
        • Converts info into neural impulses and translated into sensations.
        • Carries nerve cells from sensory receptors to the brain & spinal cord.
        • Some sensory info doesn't travel to the brain.
      • Motor
        • They directly or indirectly control muscles by forming synapses.
        • Located in the CNS.
        • They release neuro-transmitters to trigger a response.
    • Structure of Neurons
      • Myelin sheath: fatty layer that speeds up electrical impulses.
      • Axon: carries impulses down the neuron.
      • Nodes of ranvier: gaps that speed up transmission by making them jump.
      • Dendrites: branch-like structures that carry nerve impulses.
      • Axon terminal: allows the nerve to communicate with the synapse.
      • Cell body: contains genetic material.
    • Synaptic Transmission
      • 2. Signals between neurons are transmitted chemically by neuro-transmitters.
      • 3. Neuro-transmitters are transmitted through vesicles when stimulated.
      • 1. Each neuron is seperated from the next by a synapse.
      • 5. This triggers the next action potential.
      • 4. They bind to receptors on the post-synaptic neuron.
    • Neuro-transmitters
      • Excitatory
        • Examples: dopamine, adrenaline.
        • Triggers nerve impulses & stimulates the brain.
      • Inhibitory
        • Inhibits nerve impulses to calm the brain.
        • Examples: serotonin, GABA.


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