neurodevelopment

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  • Basics of neurodevelopment
    • Induction: neural plate folds to form the neural tube which develops into 6 vesicles
      • Spinal cord. Myelencephalon, mesencephalon, metencephalon, diencephalo, telencephalon
      • Proliferation: Formation of nerve cells (neuroblasts) in the ventricular zone.
        • Migration: neuroblasts move to their correct vesicles.
          • Differentiation: the neuroblasts develop into different types of nerve cells- this depends on the information the cell possesses as well as the influence of neighboring cells
            • intrinsic self organization
            • differentiation due to neural environment
            • Growth of axons and dendrites:  Allows connections between areas of the brain (formed by chemical affinity)
              • Synaptogenesis: formation of synapses that connects neurons for information exchange. (over produced)
                • Neuron cell death(apoptosis): Genetic mechanism where unnecessary cells are destroyed.
                  • Synaptic pruning: Depending on how often a synapse is used it will either strengthen or weaken. weak synapses are pruned away to make the brain more efficient
                    • Myelination: axons are coated in fatty sheath of myelin. This increases the speed at which nervous impulses can be transmitted. Refines and advances abuilities
                      • starts at brainstem, last is prefrontal cortex
                        • Sequential
                    • Use dependance
                    • lower synaptic density links to more developed/ effective cognition
                    • if specific experiences are missed the synapses associated with them will be destroyed
                    • plasticity

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