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  • Networks
    • Stand alone computers
      • This refers to any computer that is not connected to any other computer via a network
    • LAN ( local area network)
      • These are devices located close to each other
      • Can be wired or wireless
      • Usually used for schools or small business
      • Allows communications between workers
      • Allows data to be shared
      • Log on from any connected machines
    • Computer network
      • It is a collection of computers that are connected together to allow the sharing of imformation
    • WAN (wide network)
      • Computer can be located in various location
      • WAN is a result of joining two or more separate LANs via satelite
    • Peer-to-Peer
      • Each computer has equal status
      • Advantages is that it shares files and peripherals i.e. printers
      • But the overall speed of the network is reduced
      • Also each peer computer may be accesses by any other peer causing it to slow down
    • Client server
      • It is a dedicated, high-spec machines that handles the storage of data and processing of shared files
      • The computers accessed by end users are called clients which request services from the server
      • It is normal for organisations to have multiple servers, each having it own dedicated function
      • Multiple servers can be stacked together to create a Data centre
      • Servers tend to be vitalised to increase efficiency and decrease energy consumption
    • Network Topology
      • Ring topology
        • One common linking cable
        • Passes all nodes
        • Fast perfromance
        • One direction traffic
      • Star topolgy
        • Shared link to server
        • Few data collision
        • Fast
      • Bus Topology
        • One common linking cable
        • cheap
        • Node connected off the cable
        • Slows down when heavy traffic
        • Lots of data collisions
      • Topology- the layout of a network
    • Each device is called a NODE
    • Adressing
      • MAC-Media access control
        • Used to communicate with physical layer of network
        • Can be used to restrict to a network
        • unique number to idenifiy individual interface
      • IP
        • Each node on a network running IP has a unique IP address
        • It uniquely identifies the node


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