Nerves and Hormones

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  • Nerves and Hormones
    • Hormones
      • Definition: Hormones are chemicals secreted by different glands in our body.
        • They control conditions in our body and co-ordinate processes.
      • The bloodstream transports hormones to different organs
      • Types/names of hormones
        • Thyroxine is produced in the thyroid gland and controls the rate of metabolism
        • Hypothalamus is produced in the brain and controls the pituitary gland
        • Insulin
        • Adrenaline
      • Hormones in the menstrual cycle
        • Promoting release of egg
          • Follicile stimulating hormone (FSH) is secreted by the pituitary gland, it makes eggs mature in the ovaris. Also stimulates the ovaries to rpoduce oestrogen
          • Luteinising hormone (LH) stimulates the release of eggs from the ovary
          • Oestrogen is secreted by the ovaries and inhibits the production of FSH
      • Artificial control, of fertility
        • Oral contreceptives contain hormones (usually oestrogen or progesterone), which stop FSH production so no eggs mature
        • Giving FSH and LH in a fertility drug to stimulate eggs to mature in their ovaries
          • IVF treatment is where eggs are fetilised outside the mothers body then inserted back into the uterus as embreyos
    • The nervous system
      • Enables us to react to our surroundings and respond accordingly
        • Consists of the brain and spinal cord
          • When a receptor is stimulated it sends a signal along the nerve cells, also called neurons, to the brain. The brain then coordinates the response.
            • Receptors are groups of cells that detect changes in the environment called stimuli.
              • Receptors found in eyes = sensitive to light
              • Receptors found in ears = sensitive sound and position of the head
              • Receptors in skin = sensitive to pressure, pain and temperature
      • Reflex actions
        • Reflexes are rapid, automatic reactions
          • Involve 3 types of neurone
            • Neurons are nerve cells that carry information as tiny electric impulses
            • Sensory neurones
              • Carry signals from receptors to the spinal cord and brain
            • Motor neurones
              • Carry signals form the central nervous system to effectors
            • Relay neurones
              • Carry messages from one part of the central nervous system to another
      • Effectors are muscles or glands. muscles respond to the arrival of impulses by contracting, your glands respond by releasing (secreting) chemical substances
      • Synapses are junctions between nerves, a chemical transmitter crosses the synaptic gap.
    • Control in the human body
      • Condition that are controlled
        • Water content: water leaves the body via the lungs, the skin when we sweat and via kidenys through urine.
        • ion content: lost via skin when we sweat and kidneys when we uinate
        • Temperature is controlled to maintain the best temperature for enzymes to work at
        • Blood sugar levels: to provide the cells with a constant supply of energy

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