Nerve Impulses

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  • Nerve Impulses
    • Neurons transmit electrical impulses along the axon.
    • Ions move IN and OUT electrical impulses along the axon.
    • Nerve impulses consist of;
      • 1) Resting potential
        • Polarised membrane
      • 2) Action potential
        • depolarised membrane
      • 3) Refractory Period
        • Repolarised membrane
    • Resting potential
      • The potential difference (electrical charge) between the inside/outside of the axon membrane, when a nerve impulse is not being conducted
        • Membrane is said to be polarised
          • Fewer ions inside compared to the outside
      • How resting potential is created
        • Na+ ions are actively pumped out faster than K+ ions are pumped in; 3Na+ pumped out and 2K+ pumped in.
        • Protein pumps - in the axon membrane use active transport to pump Na+ out of the axon and K+ into the axon sodium-potassium pump.
        • K+ channels remain open, therefore there is higher permeability to K+, K+ diffuses out and more rapidly then Na+
        • Membrane is more permeable to potassium


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