Hovland Yale

  • Created by: hmarks62
  • Created on: 10-02-15 10:08
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  • Media and Persuasion: Hovland-Yale model
    • Message Factors
      • E.g. a "Fear message" to persuade people to behave in a certain way
      • Putwain & Symes (2011): Classroom fear appeals in secondary school students in relation to upcoming exams
        • When emphasising a "mastery approach" (teacher giving advice about how to use time best) the fear appeals frequency was positively related to exam performance. But when just threatening, frequency was negatively related
          • The ICE campaign emphasised personal choice, opportunities for positive attitude formation and behaviour change
      • 2008 Australian Govt ICE campaign shows fear appeals do work
        • Warned young people of the dangers of meth "don't let ICE destroy you", using moderate levels of fear through explicit images and consequences such as skin abnormalities.78% 13-24 year olds said the campaign changed how they felt about drugs
    • Source Factors
      • More attractive the source (not necessarily physical attractiveness) the more persuasive it is
      • E.g. George Clooney selling nespresso, Cheryl Cole and L'Oreal
      • Attractive sources are not necessarily most influential as according to HY model. O'Mahoney & Meenaghan (1997): Celeb endorsements are not regarded as convincing or believable
        • Celebrities often over-shadow the product e.g. Johnny Vegas and Monkey for ITV digital
    • Audience factors
      • Younger people are more susceptible to persuasive  messages, which has implications for using children as witnesses - testimony could be affected by misleading info
      • Martin (1997): Older kids had a good understanding of the persuasive intent of adverts, younger kids did not
    • Persuasion is achieved by focussing on 3 main factors: The who, the what, and to whom
    • Much early research was using solely army personnel and students - they have an age, wealth and education untypical of general population, so results cannot be generalised
    • Gender Bias in research: its suggested women are more susceptible, but Sistrunk & David (1971) suggest this is because the methodology is flawed - the topics considered are those with which men are more familiar, so are less persuaded by


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