Nazi Dictatorship 1933-39

View mindmap
  • Nazi Dictatorship 1933-9
    • role of Hitler
      • character
        • charismatic + dynamic image cultivated by propaganda
        • indolent (slept in, pet projects, loathed paperwork + committees)
      • leadership
        • lacked decisiveness
        • decline of cabinet gov for informal conversation decisions
        • 'charismatic domination'
      • Fuhrer power
        • in theory unlimited
          • merged offices for chancellor + president
        • constitutional/ practical issues
          • dependent on subordinates to enact policies
    • economic recovery
      • Schacht's economic policy
        • adopted deficit financing (revival of public investment + increase in state spending to stimulate demand and raise income)
        • banking and control of capital
          • state increased control
          • lower interest rates
          • reschedule authorities' debts
        • assistance for farming + small businesses
          • financial benefits e.g. tariffs + subsidies from Reich Food Estate
          • Reich Entailed Farm Law (more security of land)
        • state investment in public works
          • voluntary Labour Service
          • 1935 RAD (Reich Labour Service; 6m before conscription service)
          • expenditure spread among rearmament, construction, + transportation
            • directed towards reforestation, land reclamation, motorisation (autobahns), + building in first 3y
        • results
          • triple investment + 70% increase in gov expenditure 1933-6
          • growth in jobs (1936 1.6m unemployed from 6m 1932)
          • coincided w natural upturn in business cycle
      • Hitler avoided detailed policies from offset
      • balance of payments problems
        • worried increased demand= inflation + trade deficit (due to imports>exports as lack of demand)
          • political implications
        • Schacht's New Plan 1934
          • gov control of economy to limit imports
          • bilateral trade treaties (save foreign exchange + extend influence)
          • regulated Reichsmark
          • mefo bills (system of deferred payment by gov to arms firms; disguised gov spending)
          • created jobs + GNP grown 40% 1933-6
            • but structural issues
    • party and the state
      • dualism
        • Hitler's ambiguity caused competition (fuhrerprinzip)
          • instinctive + vague declarations (interpreted)
        • polycratic gov w overlapping ministries
      • propaganda showed organised totalitarian image
      • 1934 Reconstruction of the Reich
      • state instituions
        • 1939 compulsory for civil service to join party
        • Reich Chancellery (run by Lammers)
          • co-ordinated gov + drew legislation
          • hard w so many organisations
        • gov ministries run by civil servants
        • regional govs dissolved
        • Courts
          • judiciary system manipulated to oppress opposition
          • judges + lawyers co-ordinated + forced to join Nazi Lawyer's Association
            • few replaced
          • legal authorities subordinate to **
          • 1933 Special Courts (w/o jury)
      • party institutions
        • specialist organisations e.g. HJ, DAF wanted to uphold interest
        • became more splintered
        • gauleiters only reported to Hitler (preserved interests + resisted authorities)
        • Untitled
      • haphazard gov and law
    • German Army
      • co-operation 1934-7
        • believed NotLK removed radical SA + would benefit them
          • political realism held Hitler back from involvement til 1938
        • oath of loyalty (commitment + future resistance was treason)
        • Blomberg + Fritsch support
        • encouraged by
          • expansion of rearmament
          • conscription (army to 550,000)
          • Saar + Rhineland success
      • Blomberg-Fritsch crisis 1937-8
        • alarmed by talk of war at Hossbach conference 1937
        • forced resignation and replaced
        • armed forces reorganised under Wehrmacht + Hitler added commander-in-chief + minister of war
        • drastically reduce Army's power
      • 1938-42  Nazi policies so successful ruined doubting officers plans
        • opposition grew during decline of war
    • propaganda and censorship
      • aims
        • glorify regime
        • spread ideology + censor unacceptable
        • integrate population into Volksgemeinschaft
      • radio and press
        • broadcasting under Reich Radio Company
          • 'creators of public opinion'
          • 1937, 70% homes had a radio
          • broadcast in public places
          • dismissed 13% of staff on politcal + racial grounds
        • 1933 4700+ regional newspapers
          • publishing house bought 2/3
          • merged into state-controlled DNB
          • 1933 Editors' Law (editor's responsibility to meet requirements or consequences)
          • 1944 party's official paper reached 1.7m
      • culture
        • greatly censored
          • e.g. literature and visual arts
        • propaganda tool to achieve indoctrination
          • e.g. cinema + 'the Eternal Jew'
      • Berlin Olympics
        • aimed to glorify regime + ideology w/o upset
          • image of 'new Germany'
        • promoted internationally through extensive media coverage e.g. radio, film, TV
        • impressive facilities
      • Nazi ritual
        • strengthened identity w regime
        • achieved through greeting, salute, uniforms, anthems etc.
        • Nazi calender
      • succeeded in cultivating 'Hitler myth' + strengthening regime (less so denouncing opponents e.g. church + creating distinct culture)
        • underpinned other policies, less important than police state
    • Four-Year Plan + industrial elites
      • aims and objectives
        • under Goring
        • aimed to expand rearmament + autarky (self-sufficiency)
        • regulate imports+ exports
        • control labour force e.g. DAF
        • increase raw materials + agricultural production
          • avoid importing
          • develop substitute products e.g. oil form coal
      • Schacht suggested reducing arms expenditure to increase production of exportable goods
        • 'guns or butter'
        • leadership thought would cost rearmament
      • effects of 4 Year Plan
        • decline of Schacht (resigned + replaced w Funk but Goring in control)
        • mixed success
          • expanded production of key materials e.g. rubber
            • short of targets
          • imports reliance didn't increase
            • still 1/3 of raw materials imported during war
      • influence of industrial elites
        • limited demand for consumer goods
          • big businesses extended influence + small lost out
        • expansion of electro-chemical sector due to role in rearmament
          • overtook Schacht + consumer goods
        • Ruhr barons lost power whe refused to co-operate (nationalised)
    • police state
      • Gestapo
        • secret state police (surveillance and repression)
        • arrest + detain w/o trial
        • omnipresent image (cultivated themselves + by the allies)
          • limited impact?
            • only 40,000 agents
            • concentrated on outsiders/asocials?
            • totalitarian police state?
        • somewhat relied on Kripo
          • general law + order security
      • ** and Himmler
        • formed 1925 as Hitler's personal security (division of SA)
          • 250 members; 1929 Himmler joined; 1933 52,000
          • totally committed
        • 1934 Night of the Long Knives
          • became independent
          • 1939 Reich Security Office (RSHA) overseen by Himmler/ Heydrich
            • amalgamated police
            • answered only to Hitler
            • ** state
              • oversaw security, military, economy (New Order), and ideology + race (camps)
              • key power bloc in Third Reich
        • main functions
          • policing
          • intelligence
          • treatment of opposition
          • Waffen ** paramilitary action
            • overtook German Army
        • could arrest anyone thought to be dangerous w/o question under Nacht und Nebel decree
      • key element in 'machine of terror'

Comments

No comments have yet been made

Similar History resources:

See all History resources »See all Democracy and Dictatorships in Germany resources »