Factors that affect development-Nature/Nurture

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  • Nature/Nurture
    • Feral Children
      • Feral children are isolated from human contact from a very young age.
        • Nature is what we are born with but nurture is part of our upbringing.
          • They have not been nurtured (socialised to become members of society which means:
            • Speech is not developed.
            • They cannot understand language.
            • They cannot walk on two legs.
            • They cannot eat with tools (Knives, Forks etc.)
            • Lack a sense of self-concept/self-awareness.
    • Keywords
      • Nature
        • Genetic inheritance and biological influences.
      • Nurture
        • Influence of external factors after conception (social, economic and environmental influences.
      • Determinism
        • Belief that our future is fixed.
      • Choice and interaction
        • Belief that we can take control of our own life through choices.
    • Development
      • Our development depends on the interaction of nature, nurture and our individual behaviour.
        • The nature v nurture debate focuses on the argument on whether:
          • We are born the way we are e.g. People are born evil, hence why they develop aggression and commit crimes.
            • OR
              • The way we are brought up and our surroundings make us the way we are e.g. This child is aggressive because he/she was brought up in an aggressive environment.
    • Different beginnings
      • You may have had quite a different nine months in the womb compared to that of your siblings and once you're born, anything can happen.
    • How do you live?
      • We all live in different environments.
        • Nobody can claim their upbringing has been the exact same as somebody else's.
          • Your genes make you unique, but so does your life.
            • your life is different from every other human life on earth.
    • Nurture
      • Life experiences
      • Housing
      • Education
      • Family
      • Environment
      • Friends
    • A natural laboratory
      • Identical twins have the exact same genes.
        • Some identical twins find themselves separated at a young age and are brought up in different homes.
          • They all share the same genes but experience s very different environment.
            • If there are differences between them it is likely to be because of their different environments.
    • A head start.
      • Your height as an adult is determined to some extent by your genes.
        • But your diet and the environment in which you develop will determine exactly where you end up on the tape measure.
          • Your genes have a strong enough effect on your height  for you to be able to predict what the adult height of your children should be if they're given a good diet.
    • A heavy burden?
      • Weight is one of those complex features which are likely to be influenced by many different genes and all manner of external influences.
        • Diet and exercise will shed the pounds if you stick at it.
          • Genetics wont provide an excuse to eat an unhealthy diet but there may be a genetic explanation for why some people find that diets don't seem to work.
    • Can you make a genius?
      • Research into the inheritance of IQ has been one of the most controversial areas of genetics.
        • Many scientists do believe that a great deal of our intelligence is inherited but there remains controversy.
    • Determinism
      • Determinism is the belief that your future is fixed or determined either by what you have genetically inherited or by your social environment and experience.
    • Choice and interaction
      • The alternative to determinism is the belief  that people can take control of their own lives through the choices they make.
    • Free will
      • Some people believe that everything is fixed by nature or nurture (determinism) or that everything is a matter of choice.
        • However, you must take into consideration that human life course involves an interaction of nature, nurture, and the decisions and choices that people make.
    • Biological programming
      • Gens provide the instructions for structuring amino acids which in turn influence the proteins within our body cells.
        • This shows how genes program the chemical basis of our biology.
          • Our body shape and size as well as our behaviour depends on the interaction of our biology broader environmental factors.
            • A human being is the result of the interaction of genes (biological programming) and the environmental influences they are exposed to.
    • Nature theorists
      • Chomsky- Language Acquisition Device
      • Gesell- Maturation Theory
      • Some aspects of development such as the ability to speak a first language are thought to be due to an inbuilt genetic process - an instruction in the gene to learn to communicate.

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