research methods

  • Created by: cieran32
  • Created on: 11-10-18 17:40
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  • Research methods (2)
    • correlational research
      • looks for relationship between two variables
      • strengths
        • causal relationship- these can be ruled out if no correlation exists
        • Ethics- study things that would be unethical to manipulate
      • weaknesses
        • causal relationships- cant be assumed as could be third unknown variable
    • naturalistic observation
      • weaknesses
        • observer bias- can be subjective to the criteria and expectations can affect what they focus on
        • Extraneous variables- affects behaviour
      • strengths
        • ecological validity- natural setting
        • Theory development- on future ways to test behaviour in controlled setting
    • questionnaires
      • can be face to face, on the phone or via internet
      • strength
        • collect large amount of information quickly (practical)
      • weakness
        • bad questions- leading questions or unclear affect validity
        • biased samples- can be unrepresentative if one type of people respond
        • ethics- confidentiality can be a problem esp around sensitive topics
        • self-report people wish to present themselves in a good light (social desirability)
    • interviews
      • more conversational than a face to face questionnaire
      • rich data- you can get detailed info as fewer constraints- unstructured
      • pilot study- interviews are useful to get info before a study
      • self-report - the results can be unreliable and affected by social desirability bias
      • impractical - conducting interviews can be time- consuming and requires skilled researchers
      • data analysis- analysing the data can be hard, particularly for qualitative data
    • case studies
      • rich data- study rare phenomena in a lot of detail
      • unique cases-  can challenge existing ideas and theories, and suggest future research ideas
      • causal relationship- cause and effect of a relationship cannot be established
      • ethics- informed consent can be hard
    • content analysis
      • involves assessing behaviour, words or concepts
        • used to analyse secondary data
      • inexpensive- usually easy and inexpensive to use
      • ethics- there may be fewer ethical issue as pps aren't directly involved
      • data analysis - can be time consuming
      • subjectivity- interpretation and categorising can be subjective

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