Trends and Causes of Hazards

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  • Natural Hazards
    • Trends
      • no. reported
        • greater interest
          • engineers
          • jobs
          • insurance companies
        • hazards aren't increasing
          • more becoming disasters
            • increased vulnerability
        • technology to monitor
          • sisometer
        • creating of databases
          • EMDAT 1988
        • media - role in communication
          • BBC News
        • no. of hydro-meteorological increasing
          • increased frequency and intensity of EL Nino and La Nins
          • climate change
          • global warming
            • warmer oceans causes more hurricanes
            • more evapouration
              • causes more flooding
      • economic costs increasing
        • hazard prone areas have high insurance costs
          • many poor people cannot afford it
        • larger economies to destroy
          • MEDC may be larger proportion of GDP
        • since 1980 -average annual cost of an average hazard has risen from $20-$160 billion
        • growing economies of NIC''s
        • Hurricane Mitch 1988
          • 50% loss in GDP for Nicaragua -more than hurricane Sandy
      • no. of deaths falling
        • better disaster management
        • better understanding or education
          • Japan
        • better prediction due to technology
        • better prepared
          • warning systems
      • no, affected increasing
        • urbanisation
        • population increase
        • 2000s over 300 million people affected a year
        • increased human vulnerability
        • people are more confident to live in hazard prone areas due to technology and good economic benefits
          • farming - volcanic soil is very fertile
          • tourism
    • Causes
      • Geophysical
        • Eatrthequakes
          • All plate boundaries
        • Volcanoes
          • Destructive
          • constructive
          • hotspots
            • Hawaii
            • area of thin crust with usually high heat flow-magma rises to surface as plume
        • Landslides
          • mountainous areas
          • heavy rainfall
          • earthquakes
          • deforestation
          • buildings on hillsides
      • Hydro-meteorological
        • tropical storms
          • water must be at least 70m in depth
          • warm water of 26 degrees or more
          • latitudes 5-20 degrees north and south of equator
            • to create Coriolis effect
        • flooding
          • EL Ninio in California and Africa
          • depression in temperate climates
          • rainfall resulted from cyclones
          • rapid snow melt
          • excessive rainfall
        • Drought
          • movement of ITCZ
            • moves north and south in Africa bringing bands of seasonal rainfall
          • El Nino in Australia and Indonesia
          • late arrival or failure of monsoon in China, India-Bangladesh
          • blocking anti-cyclones causes depression to teck to further regions
          • high pressure zones expand to block rainfall

Comments

Mr A Gibson

A useful resource on the causes and effect of natural hazards, along with other relevant information. This would be ideal on your "revision wall"!

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